Review Special Issues

Autism, 75 years of history: From psychoanalysis to neurobiology

  • Received: 04 January 2019 Accepted: 10 April 2019 Published: 06 May 2019
  • In this article we evaluated the lengthy seventy-five year history of Autism Spectrum Disorder beginning with the first diagnosis in 1943 and the first etiological orientations (psychodynamic factors) until today, in which the approach to behavioral problems has increasingly become neurobiological in nature. Abnormal relationships, verbal communication impairments and stereotyped behaviors, are no longer considered the cause of the problem, but rather the manifestation of this problem. Additionally, these factors must not be considered a “problem” and should be viewed as an “adaptation”. In other words, a way through which individuals with different anatomical and functional nervous system give “meanings” to their own bodies and the external world. Subjects with autism have a different connectome. Their neuronal network, under life experiences (learning), has undergone an abnormal selection. In modern words, talking about connectome, could mean direct our attention and studies on the body-brain relationship and chronic inflammation.

    Citation: Antonio Parisi, Sara Parisi. Autism, 75 years of history: From psychoanalysis to neurobiology[J]. AIMS Molecular Science, 2019, 6(1): 20-26. doi: 10.3934/molsci.2019.1.20

    Related Papers:

  • In this article we evaluated the lengthy seventy-five year history of Autism Spectrum Disorder beginning with the first diagnosis in 1943 and the first etiological orientations (psychodynamic factors) until today, in which the approach to behavioral problems has increasingly become neurobiological in nature. Abnormal relationships, verbal communication impairments and stereotyped behaviors, are no longer considered the cause of the problem, but rather the manifestation of this problem. Additionally, these factors must not be considered a “problem” and should be viewed as an “adaptation”. In other words, a way through which individuals with different anatomical and functional nervous system give “meanings” to their own bodies and the external world. Subjects with autism have a different connectome. Their neuronal network, under life experiences (learning), has undergone an abnormal selection. In modern words, talking about connectome, could mean direct our attention and studies on the body-brain relationship and chronic inflammation.


    加载中

    Abbreviation DSM: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders; PET: Positron Emission Tomography; CAT: Computed Tomography; TEACCH: Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related handicapped Children; ABA: Applied Behavior Analysis;

    Conflict of interest



    The authors declare no conflict of interest.

    [1] Eccles JC (1989) Evolution of the Brain: Creation of the Self, London: Routledge, 12.
    [2] Edelman GM (2004) Wider Than the Sky: The Phenomenal Consciousness, New Heaven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 17.
    [3] Changeux JP (1983) L'Homme neuronal, Paris: Fayard, 119.
    [4] Kandel E (2012) The Age of Insight, New York: Random House, 484.
    [5] LeDoux J (2015) Anxious: Using the Brain to Understand and Treat Fear and Anxiety, New York: Penguin Books, 295.
    [6] Damasio A (2018) The Strange Order of Things: Life, Feeling, and the Making of Cultures, New York: Pantheon Books, 51.
    [7] Calissano P (1992) Neuroni (Itatilan Edition), Milano: Garzanti, 109.
    [8] Koch C (2004) The Quest for Consciousness: A Neurobiological Approach, Englewood, Colorado: Roberts and Company Publishers, 88.
    [9] Ramachandran V (2012) The Tell-Tale Brain, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 101.
    [10] Levi Montalcini R (1999) La galassia mente (Italian Edition), Milano: Baldini e Castoldi, 174
    [11] Boncinelli E (2012) Quel che resta dell'anima (Italian Edition), Milano: Rizzoli, 49.
    [12] Parisi A (1999) Il bambino dallo sguardo sfuggente: I segreti del comportamento autistico (Italian Edition), Napoli: ESI, 37.
    [13] Edelman GM (1993) Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind, New York: Basic Books, 49.
    [14] Zeki S (2009) Splendors and Miseries of the Brain: Love, Creativity, and the Quest for Human Happiness, UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, 15.
    [15] Tononi G (2012) PHI: A Voyage from the Brain to the Soul, New York: Pantheon Books, 252.
    [16] Damasio A (2010) Self Comes to Mind, New York: Pantheon Books, 36.
  • Reader Comments
  • © 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
  • 1. 

    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

  1. 本站搜索
  2. 百度学术搜索
  3. 万方数据库搜索
  4. CNKI搜索

Metrics

Article views(3006) PDF downloads(1939) Cited by(2)

Article outline

Other Articles By Authors

/

DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
Return
Return

Catalog