A celebrated result in bifurcation theory is that, when the operators involved are compact, global connected sets of non-trivial solutions bifurcate from trivial solutions at non-zero eigenvalues of odd algebraic multiplicity of the linearized problem. This paper presents a simple example in which the hypotheses of the global bifurcation theorem are satisfied, yet all the path-connected components of the connected sets that bifurcate are singletons. Another example shows that even when the operators are everywhere infinitely differentiable and classical bifurcation occurs locally at a simple eigenvalue, the global continua may not be path-connected away from the bifurcation point. A third example shows that the non-trivial solutions which bifurcate at non-zero eigenvalues, irrespective of multiplicity when the problem has gradient structure, may not be connected and may not contain any paths except singletons.
Citation: J. F. Toland. Path-connectedness in global bifurcation theory[J]. Electronic Research Archive, 2021, 29(6): 4199-4213. doi: 10.3934/era.2021079
A celebrated result in bifurcation theory is that, when the operators involved are compact, global connected sets of non-trivial solutions bifurcate from trivial solutions at non-zero eigenvalues of odd algebraic multiplicity of the linearized problem. This paper presents a simple example in which the hypotheses of the global bifurcation theorem are satisfied, yet all the path-connected components of the connected sets that bifurcate are singletons. Another example shows that even when the operators are everywhere infinitely differentiable and classical bifurcation occurs locally at a simple eigenvalue, the global continua may not be path-connected away from the bifurcation point. A third example shows that the non-trivial solutions which bifurcate at non-zero eigenvalues, irrespective of multiplicity when the problem has gradient structure, may not be connected and may not contain any paths except singletons.
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