Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Characterization of physicochemical properties of starches from improved cassava varieties grown in Zambia

1 Department of Bioresources Engineering, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Carbis Road, Rabie Saunders Building Scottsville, Private Bag X01 Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209 KZN, South Africa
2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Private Bag 0027, Gaborone, Botswana
3 Africa Centre for Crop Improvement, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X01 Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3209, KZN, South Africa

Cassava starches processed from six different cassava varieties (Bangweulu, Katobamputa, Mweru, Kariba, Kampolombo and Chila) were assessed for variety effect on swelling, solubility, gelatinization, pasting and gel freeze-thaw stability properties. The swelling power was investigated using dispersion methods in water while gelatinization and pasting were determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The gel freeze-thaw stability was determined by syneresis method. The starch granules size of the cassava starches were in the range 1.17–22.22 μm. The swelling power and solubility index of starches were in the range of 2.22–15.63 g/g and 1.62–71.15%, respectively. Solubility index of starches correlated positively with amylose (p < 0.0001). Swelling powers of starches showed a weak negative correlation with resistant starch content. The onset (To), peak (Tp) and conclusion (Tc) gelatinization temperatures of cassava starches were ranged from 56.33–63.00 ℃, 62.00–71.29 ℃ and 69.10–77.12 ℃, respectively and varied among cassava varieties (p < 0.05). The pasting temperatures for starches were in the range of 64.54–70.54 ℃ and weak positively correlated with amylose (r = 0.231, p < 0.001). The peak viscosity (782.3–983.5 cP), breakdown viscosity (383.8–506.8 cP) and final viscosity (462.0–569.7 cP) varied (p < 0.05) among cassava varieties and exhibited negative correlation with amylose (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively). The syneresis for the freeze-thaw and five freeze-thaw cycle storage were ranged from 0.00–29.11% and 0.00–42.40%, respectively, and varied (p < 0.05) among cassava varieties. The sources of variations in physicochemical properties among the cassava varieties were due to differences in amylose, protein, lipid contents, and starch granule size distribution.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Zhu F (2015) Composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and modifications of cassava starch. Carbohydr Polym 122: 456-480.    

2. Charles AL, Cato K, Huang TC, et al. (2016) Functional properties of arrowroot starch in cassava and sweet potato composite starches. Food Hydrocoll 53: 187-191.    

3. Wang D, Fan D, Ding M, et al. (2015) Characteristics of different types of starch in starch noodles and their effect on eating quality. Int J Food Prop 18: 2472-2486.    

4. Park EY, Ma JG, Kim J, et al. (2018) Effect of dual modification of HMT and crosslinking on physicochemical properties and digestibility of waxy maize starch. Food Hydrocoll 75: 33-40.    

5. Lindeboom N, Chang PR, Tyler RT, et al. (2004) Analytical, biochemical and physicochemical aspects of starch granule size, with emphasis on small granule starches: a review. Starch‐Stärke 56: 89-99.

6. Mtunguja MK, Thitisaksakul M, Muzanila YC, et al. (2016) Assessing variation in physicochemical, structural, and functional properties of root starches from novel Tanzanian cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) landraces. Starch‐Stärke 68: 514-527.

7. Mbougueng P, Tenin D, Scher J, et al. (2012) Influence of acetylation on physicochemical, functional and thermal properties of potato and cassava starches. J Food Eng 108: 320-326.    

8. Kusumayanti H, Handayani NA, Santosa H (2015) Swelling power and water solubility of cassava and sweet potatoes flour. Proc Environ Sci 23: 164-167.    

9. Eriksson E, Koch K, Tortoe C, et al. (2014) Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of three varieties of cassava in wheat composite flours. Br J Appl Sci Technol 4: 1609.    

10. Chinma CE, Ariahu CC, Abu JO (2013) Chemical composition, functional and pasting properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends. J Food Sci Technol 50: 1179-1185.    

11. Rocha TdS, Carneiro APdA, Franco CML (2010) Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on some physicochemical properties of root and tuber granular starches. Food Sci Technol 30: 544-551.

12. Haggblade S, Andersson Djurfeldt A, Banda DN, et al. (2012) Cassava commercialization in Southeastern Africa. J Agribusi Devel Emerg Econ 2: 4-40.    

13. Chikoti PC, Shanahan P, Melis R (2016) Evaluation of cassava genotypes for resistance to cassava mosaic disease and agronomic traits. Am J Plant Sci 7: 11-22.

14. Dixon AG, Asiedu R, Bokanga M (1997) Breeding of cassava for low cyanogenic potential: Problems, progress and prospects. Acta Hortic 375: 153-162.

15. Sarkiyayi S, Agar T (2010) Comparative analysis on the nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of the sweet and bitter cassava varieties. Adv J Food Sci Techn 2: 328-334.

16. Numfor F, Walter JrW (1996) Cohesiveness of native cassava starch pastes: Effect of fermentation. Afri J Root Tuber Crops 1: 29-32.

17. AOAC (2012) Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 2012, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA: 19th edition. AOAC International.

18. Nuwamanya E, Baguma Y, Rubaihayo P (2010) Physicochemical and functional characteristics of cassava starch in Ugandan varieties and their progenies. J Plant Breed Crop Sci 2: 001-011.

19. Fannon JE, Hauber RJ, JN BeMiller (1992) Surface pores of starch granules. Cereal Chem 69: 284-288.

20. Huang Z, Lu J, Li X, et al. (2007) Effect of mechanical activation on physico-chemical properties and structure of cassava starch. Carbohydr Polym 68: 128-135.    

21. Colman TAD, Demiate IM, Schnitzler E (2014) The effect of microwave radiation on some thermal, rheological and structural properties of cassava starch. J Therm Anal Calorim 115: 2245-2252.    

22. Morante N, Ceballos H, Sánchez T, et al. (2016) Discovery of new spontaneous sources of amylose-free cassava starch and analysis of their structure and techno-functional properties. Food Hydrocoll 56: 383-395.    

23. Hedayati S, Shahidi F, Koocheki A, et al. (2016) Functional properties of granular cold‐water swelling maize starch: Effect of sucrose and glucose. J Food Sci Technol 51: 2416-2423.    

24. Agnes AC, Felix EC, Ugochukwu NT (2017) Morphology, Rheology and Functional Properties of Starch from Cassava, Sweet Potato and Cocoyam. Asi J Biol 3: 1-13.

25. McClements DJ, Chung C, Wu B (2017) Structural design approaches for creating fat droplet and starch granule mimetics. Food Funct J 8: 498-510.    

26. Nuwamanya E, Baguma Y, Emmambux N, et al. (2010) Crystalline and pasting properties of cassava starch are influenced by its molecular properties. Afr J Food Sci 4: 008-015.

27. Gomand SV, Lamberts L, Derde LJ, et al. (2010) Structural properties and gelatinisation characteristics of potato and cassava starches and mutants thereof. Food Hydroc 24: 307-317.    

28. Cheetham NW, L Tao (1998) Variation in crystalline type with amylose content in maize starch granules: An X-ray powder diffraction study. Carbohydr Polym 36: 277-284.    

29. Lemos PVF, Barbosa LS, Ramos IG, et al. (2018) The important role of crystallinity and amylose ratio in thermal stability of starches. J Therm Anal Calorim 131: 2555-2567.    

30. Abdullah N, Nawawi A, Othman I (2000) Fungal spoilage of starch-based foods in relation to its water activity (aw). J Stored Prod Res 36: 47-54.    

31. Delgado P, Bañón S (2015) Determining the minimum drying time of gummy confections based on their mechanical properties. CyTA J Food 13: 329-335.    

32. Kormin S, Kormin F, Beg MDH, et al. (2017) Physical and mechanical properties of LDPE incorporated with different starch sources. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 226, 012157.

33. Abioye V, Adeyemi I, Akinwande B, et al. (2017) Effect of steam cooking and storage time on the formation of resistant starch and functional properties of cassava starch. Cogent Food Agric 3: 1-11.

34. Edhirej A, Sapuan SM, Jawaid M, et al. (2017) Cassava: Its polymer, fiber, composite, and application. Polym Composi 38: 555-570.    

35. Nair SB, Alummoottil N, Moothandasserry S (2017) Chitosan‐konjac glucomannan‐cassava starch‐nanosilver composite films with moisture resistant and antimicrobial properties for food‐packaging applications. Starch‐Stärke 69: 1-12.

36. Gutiérrez TJ, Pérez E, Guzmán R, et al. (2014) Physicochemical and functional properties of native and modified by crosslinking, dark-cush-cush yam (dioscorea trifida) and cassava (manihot esculenta) starch. J Polym Biopolym Phys Chem 2: 1-5.

37. Eke-Ejiofor J (2015) Functional properties of starches, physico-chemical and rheological properties of glucose syrup made from cassava and different potato varieties. Int J Recent Sci Res 6: 4400-4406.

38. Oladunmoye OO, Aworh OC, Maziya‐Dixon B, et al. (2014) Chemical and functional properties of cassava starch, durum wheat semolina flour, and their blends. Food Sci Nutr 2: 132-138.    

39. Morante N, Ceballos H, Sánchez T, et al. (2016) Discovery of new spontaneous sources of amylose-free cassava starch and analysis of their structure and techno-functional properties. Food Hydroc 56: 383-395.    

40. dos Santos TPR, Franco CML, Demiate IM, et al. (2018) Spray-drying and extrusion processes: Effects on morphology and physicochemical characteristics of starches isolated from Peruvian carrot and cassava. Int J Biol Macromol 118: 1346-1353.    

41. Liu R, Sun W, Zhang Y, et al. (2019) Preparation of starch dough using damaged cassava starch induced by mechanical activation to develop staple foods: Application in crackers. Food Chem 271: 284-290.    

42. Abiola ON (2014) Appraisal of cassava starch as coagulant aid in the alum coagulation of congo red from aqua system. Int J Environ Pollut Solut 2: 47-58.

43. Oladunmoye OO, Aworh OC, Maziya-Dixon B, et al. (2014) Chemical and functional properties of cassava starch, durum wheat semolina flour, and their blends. Food Sci Nutr 2: 132-138.    

44. Suriyakul Na Ayudhaya P, Pongsawasdi P, Laohasongkram K, et al. (2016) Properties of Cassava starch modified by amylomaltase from corynebacterium glutamicum. J Food Sci 81: C1363-C1369.    

45. Mtunguja MK, Laswai HS, Kanju E, et al. (2016) Effect of genotype and genotype by environment interaction on total cyanide content, fresh root, and starch yield in farmer‐preferred cassava landraces in Tanzania. Food Sci Nutr 4: 791-801.    

46. Mejía‐Agüero LE, Galeno F, Hernández‐Hernández O, et al. (2012) Starch determination, amylose content and susceptibility to in vitro amylolysis in flours from the roots of 25 cassava varieties. J Sci Food Agric 92: 673-678.    

47. Tester RF, Karkalas J, Qi X (2004) Starch-composition, fine structure and architecture. J Cereal Sci 39: 151-165.    

48. Botticella E, Sestili F, Sparla F, et al. (2018) Combining mutations at genes encoding key enzymes involved in starch synthesis affects the amylose content, carbohydrate allocation and hardness in the wheat grain. Plant Biotechnol J 16: 1723-1734.    

49. Charles AL, Chang YH, Ko WC, et al. (2005) Influence of amylopectin structure and amylose content on the gelling properties of five cultivars of cassava starches. J Agric Food Chem 53: 2717-2725.    

50. Boonpo S, Kungwankunakorn S (2017) Study on amylose iodine complex from cassava starch by colorimetric method. J Adv Agri Techn 4: 345-349.

51. Hallström E, Sestili F, Lafiandra D, et al. (2011) A novel wheat variety with elevated content of amylose increases resistant starch formation and may beneficially influence glycaemia in healthy subjects. Food and Nutri Res 55: 1-8.    

52. Vatanasuchart N, Niyomwit B, Wongkrajang K (2009) Resistant starch contents and the in vitro starch digestibility of Thai starchy foods. Kasetsart J 43: 178-186.

53. Moongngarm A (2013) Chemical compositions and resistant starch content in starchy foods. Am J Agric Biol Sci 8: 107.    

54. Pereira BLB, Leonel M (2014) Resistant starch in cassava products. Food Sci Technol 34: 298-302.

55. Aprianita A, Vasiljevic T, Bannikova A, et al. (2014) Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots. J Food Sci Technol 51: 3669-3679.    

56. Moorthy S, Wenham JE, Blanshard JM (1996) Effect of solvent extraction on the gelatinisation properties of flour and starch of five cassava varieties. J Sci Food Agric 72: 329-336.    

57. Defloor I, Dehing I, Delcour J (1998) Physico‐chemical properties of cassava starch. Starch‐Stärke 50: 58-64.

58. Gbadamosi S, Oladeji B (2013) Comparative studies of the functional and physico-chemical properties of isolated cassava, cocoyam and breadfruit starches. Int Food Res J 20: 2273-2277.

59. Sánchez T, Dufour D, Moreno IX, et al. (2010) Comparison of pasting and gel stabilities of waxy and normal starches from potato, maize, and rice with those of a novel waxy cassava starch under thermal, chemical, and mechanical stress. J Agric Food Chem 58: 5093-5099.    

60. Uthumporn U, Nadiah I, Izzuddin I, et al. (2017) Physicochemical characteristics of non-starch polysaccharides extracted from cassava tubers. Sains Malaysiana 46: 223-229.    

61. Muoki PN, Kinnear M, Emmambux MN, et al. (2015) Effect of the addition of soy flour on sensory quality of extrusion and conventionally cooked cassava complementary porridges. J Sci Food Agric 95: 730-738.    

62. Nissar J, Ahad T, Naik H, et al. (2017) Resistant starch-chemistry and nutritional properties. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2: 95-108.

63. Akinwale T, Niniola D, Abass A, et al. (2017) Screening of some cassava starches for their potential applications in custard and salad cream productions. J Food Meas Charact 11: 299-309.    

64. Demiate IM, Kotovicz V (2011) Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry. Food Sci Technol 31: 388-397.

65. Akpa J, Dagde K (2012) Modification of cassava starch for industrial uses. Int Engin Technol 2: 913-919.

66. Tako M, Tamaki Y, Teruya T, et al. (2014) The principles of starch gelatinization and retrogradation. Food Sci Nutr 5: 280.

67. Muñoz LA, Pedreschi F, Leiva A, et al. (2015) Loss of birefringence and swelling behavior in native starch granules: Microstructural and thermal properties. J Food Eng 152: 65-71.    

68. Bertoft E (2017) Understanding starch structure: Recent progress. Agronomy 7: 56.

69. Eliasson AC, Larsson K, Andersson S, et al. (1987) On the structure of native starch-an analogue to the quartz structure. Starch‐Stärke 39: 147-152.

70. Lii CY, Tsai ML, Tseng KH (1996) Effect of amylose content on the rheological property of rice starch. Cereal Chem 73: 415-420.

71. Li W, Gao J, Wu G, et al. (2016) Physicochemical and structural properties of A-and B-starch isolated from normal and waxy wheat: Effects of lipids removal. Food Hydrocoll 60: 364-373.    

72. Mweta DE, Kalenga-Saka JD, M Labuschagne (2015) A comparison of functional properties of native Malawian cocoyam, sweetpotato and cassava starches. Sci Res Essays 10: 579-592.    

73. Ai Y, Jane Jl (2015) Gelatinization and rheological properties of starch. Starch‐Stärke 67: 213-224.

74. Kaur A, Shevkani K, Katyal M, et al. (2016) Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality. J Food Sci Technol 53: 2127-2138.    

75. Jane J, Chen Y, Lee L, et al. (1999) Effects of amylopectin branch chain length and amylose content on the gelatinization and pasting properties of starch. Cereal Chem 76: 629-637.    

76. Aldana AS, Quintero AF (2013) Physicochemical characterization of two cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) starches and flours. Rev Sci Agroaliment 1: 19-25.

77. Justamante Händel Schmitz G, Gonçalves Peroni‐Okita FH, Oliveira do Nascimento JR, et al. (2017) Selected physicochemical properties of starches isolated from ten cassava varieties reveal novel industrial uses. Starch‐Stärke 69: 1-9.

78. Singh N, Kaur L (2004) Morphological, thermal, rheological and retrogradation properties of potato starch fractions varying in granule size. J Sci Food Agric 84: 1241-1252.    

79. Zeng M, Morris CF, Batey IL, et al. (1997) Sources of variation for starch gelatinization, pasting, and gelation properties in wheat. Cereal Chem 74: 63-71.    

80. Li W, Gao J, Wu G, et al. (2016) Physicochemical and structural properties of A- and B-starch isolated from normal and waxy wheat: Effects of lipids removal. Food Hydrocoll 60: 364-373.    

81. Gomand S, Lamberts L, Derde L, et al. (2010) Structural properties and gelatinisation characteristics of potato and cassava starches and mutants thereof. Food Hydrocoll 24: 307-317.    

82. Rolland-Sabaté A, Sánchez T, Buléon A, et al. (2012) Structural characterization of novel cassava starches with low and high-amylose contents in comparison with other commercial sources. Food Hydrocoll 27: 161-174.    

83. Biliaderis CG (1991) The structure and interactions of starch with food constituents. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 69: 60-78.    

84. Waterschoot J, Gomand SV, Fierens E, et al. (2015) Production, structure, physicochemical and functional properties of maize, cassava, wheat, potato and rice starches. Starch‐Stärke 67: 14-29.

85. Olanrewaju AS, Idowu OE (2017) Quality assessment of Cassava Gari produced in some selected local governments of Ekiti state, Nigeria. Am J Food Sci Nutri 4: 36-41.

86. Srikaeo K, Sopade PA (2010) Functional properties and starch digestibility of instant Jasmine rice porridges. Carbohydr Polym 82: 952-957.    

87. Oates CG (1997) Towards an understanding of starch granule structure and hydrolysis. Trends Food Sci Technol 8: 375-382.    

88. MacGregor A, Bazin S, Izydorczyk M (2002) Gelatinisation characteristics and enzyme susceptibility of different types of barley starch in the temperature range 48-72 ℃. J I Brewing 108: 43-47.    

89. Rübsam H, Gastl M, Becker T (2013) Determination of the influence of starch sources and mashing procedures on the range of the molecular weight distribution of beer using field‐flow fractionation. J I Brewing 119: 139-148.

90. Saha D, Bhattacharya S (2010) Hydrocolloids as thickening and gelling agents in food: A critical review. J Food Sci Technol 47: 587-597.    

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved