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Broiler farming practices using new or re-used bedding, inclusive of free-range, have no impact on Campylobacter levels, species diversity, Campylobacter community profiles and Campylobacter bacteriophages

  • Received: 03 August 2023 Revised: 27 November 2023 Accepted: 25 December 2023 Published: 16 January 2024
  • A multi-stage option to address food-safety can be produced by a clearer understanding of Campylobacter's persistence through the broiler production chain, its environmental niche and its interaction with bacteriophages. This study addressed Campylobacter levels, species, genotype, bacteriophage composition/ levels in caeca, litter, soil and carcasses across commercial broiler farming practices to inform on-farm management, including interventions.

    Broilers were sequentially collected as per company slaughter schedules over two-years from 17 farms, which represented four commercially adopted farming practices, prior to the final bird removal (days 39–53). The practices were conventional full clean-out, conventional litter re-use, free-range–full cleanout and free-range–litter re-use. Caeca, litter and soil collected on-farm, and representative carcases collected at the processing plant, were tested for Campylobacter levels, species dominance and Campylobacter bacteriophages. General community profiling via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the flaA gene was used to establish the population relationships between various farming practices on representative Campylobacter isolates. The farming practice choices did not influence the high caeca Campylobacter levels (log 7.5 to log 8.5 CFU/g), the carcass levels (log 2.5 to log 3.2 CFU/carcass), the C. jejuni/C. coli dominance and the on-farm bacteriophage presence/levels. A principal coordinate analysis of the flaA distribution for farm and litter practices showed strong separation but no obvious farming practice related grouping of Campylobacter. Bacteriophages originated from select farms, were not practice-dependent, and were detected in the environment (litter) only if present in the birds (caeca).

    This multifaceted study showed no influence of farming practices on on-farm Campylobacter dynamics. The significance of this study means that a unified on-farm risk-management could be adopted irrespective of commercial practice choices to collectively address caeca Campylobacter levels, as well as the potential to include Campylobacter bacteriophage biocontrol. The impact of this study means that there are no constraints in re-using bedding or adopting free-range farming, thus contributing to environmentally sustainable (re-use) and emerging (free-range) broiler farming choices.

    Citation: Helene Nalini Chinivasagam, Wiyada Estella, Damien Finn, David G. Mayer, Hugh Rodrigues, Ibrahim Diallo. Broiler farming practices using new or re-used bedding, inclusive of free-range, have no impact on Campylobacter levels, species diversity, Campylobacter community profiles and Campylobacter bacteriophages[J]. AIMS Microbiology, 2024, 10(1): 12-40. doi: 10.3934/microbiol.2024002

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  • A multi-stage option to address food-safety can be produced by a clearer understanding of Campylobacter's persistence through the broiler production chain, its environmental niche and its interaction with bacteriophages. This study addressed Campylobacter levels, species, genotype, bacteriophage composition/ levels in caeca, litter, soil and carcasses across commercial broiler farming practices to inform on-farm management, including interventions.

    Broilers were sequentially collected as per company slaughter schedules over two-years from 17 farms, which represented four commercially adopted farming practices, prior to the final bird removal (days 39–53). The practices were conventional full clean-out, conventional litter re-use, free-range–full cleanout and free-range–litter re-use. Caeca, litter and soil collected on-farm, and representative carcases collected at the processing plant, were tested for Campylobacter levels, species dominance and Campylobacter bacteriophages. General community profiling via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the flaA gene was used to establish the population relationships between various farming practices on representative Campylobacter isolates. The farming practice choices did not influence the high caeca Campylobacter levels (log 7.5 to log 8.5 CFU/g), the carcass levels (log 2.5 to log 3.2 CFU/carcass), the C. jejuni/C. coli dominance and the on-farm bacteriophage presence/levels. A principal coordinate analysis of the flaA distribution for farm and litter practices showed strong separation but no obvious farming practice related grouping of Campylobacter. Bacteriophages originated from select farms, were not practice-dependent, and were detected in the environment (litter) only if present in the birds (caeca).

    This multifaceted study showed no influence of farming practices on on-farm Campylobacter dynamics. The significance of this study means that a unified on-farm risk-management could be adopted irrespective of commercial practice choices to collectively address caeca Campylobacter levels, as well as the potential to include Campylobacter bacteriophage biocontrol. The impact of this study means that there are no constraints in re-using bedding or adopting free-range farming, thus contributing to environmentally sustainable (re-use) and emerging (free-range) broiler farming choices.



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    Acknowledgments



    The financial support of the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (Agrifutures Australia) (RIRDC Project Number: No PRJ-006238), Chicken Meat Program is gratefully acknowledged. The publication of this work was made possible by the support of the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries (DAF), Australia. We gratefully acknowledge both integrator companies and all farmers for their participation. The support of Professor Ian Connerton (University of Nottingham, United Kingdom) with the bacteriophage work is gratefully acknowledged. We gratefully acknowledge Dr. Craig Billington (Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Christchurch, New Zealand) for reviewing the manuscript and providing valuable comments. The technical support of Caitlin Weyand is acknowledged. Dr. Kathy Crew is acknowledged for the preparation of the EM image of Campylobacter bacteriophage.

    Conflict of interest



    The authors declare no conflict of interest.

    Author contributions



    HC with industry collaborators designed the study, administered the project, curated the data, and wrote the original version. HC, WE, DF, HR, DM and ID all provided input into methodologies, farm and laboratory experiments. HC, DM and DF analysed the data. HC, DF, DM, and ID contributed to the final manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submission.

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