Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Insights of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease outbreak, management and treatment

1 Department of Biotechnology, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal-131039, Sonepat, Haryana India
2 Institute for Cellular Therapeutics,Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky-40202, USA
3 Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology.and James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky-40202, USA

Emerging and re-emerging viral diseases poses a threat to living organisms, and led to serious concern to humankind and public health. The last two decades, viral epidemics such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome(SARS-CoV) reported in the years 2002–2003, and H1N1 influenza (Swine flu) in 2009, middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) from Saudi Arabia in 2012, Ebola virus in 2014–2016, and Zika virus in 2015. The recent outbreak of 2019-CoV-2 or severe acute respiratory syndrome-2(SARS-CoV-2), novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, or 2019 disease, COVID-19) in Dec 2019, from, Wuhan city of China, has severe implications of health concerns to the whole world, due to global spread and high health risk. More than 423349 deaths had occurred globally and is still increasing every day. The whole world is under a health emergency, and people are advised to stay at their homes to avoid the spread of person-to-person infection, and advised to maintain social distancing. The advancement in clinical diagnosis techniques like Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR), immunological, microscopy, and geographic information system (GIS) mapping technology helped in tacking the rapid diagnosis and tracking viral infection in a short period. In the same way, artificial intelligence (AI), combinatorial chemistry, and deep learning approaches help to find novel therapeutics in less time and wide applicability in biomedical research. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has started the clinical trials of investigation COVID-19 vaccine. Therefore, we can expect vaccines to be available for this deadly disease in the coming few months.
  Article Metrics


1. Khan S, Ali A, Siddique R, et al. (2020) Novel coronavirus is putting the whole world on alert. J Hosp Inf 104: 252–253.    

2. Munster VJ, Bausch DG, de Wit E, et al. (2018) Outbreaks in a rapidly changing central Africa-Lessons from Ebola. New Eng J Med 379: 1198–1201.    

3. Chan JF, Kok KH, Zhu Z, et al. (2020) Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emer Microb Infect 9: 221–236.    

4. Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, et al.(2020) Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet 395: 565–574.

5. Sun Z, Thilakavathy K, Kumar SS, et al. (2020) Factors influencing repeated SARS outbreaks in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 17: 1633.    

6. Xu J, Zhao S, Teng T, et al. (2020) Systematic comparison of two animal-to-human transmitted human coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Viruses 12: 244.    

7. II Bogoch, Watts A, Thomas-Bachli A, et al. (2020) Potential for global spread of a novel coronavirus from China. J Trav Med 27.

8. Tuite AR, Bogoch, II, Sherbo R, et al. (2020) Estimation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) burden and potential for international dissemination of infection from Iran. Ann Internat Med 19: 699–701.

9. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. (2020) Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus infected Pneumonia. New Eng J Med 382: 1199–1207.    

10. Zhao S, Lin Q, Ran J, et al. (2020) Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak. Int J Infect Dis 92: 214–217.    

11. Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X (2020) Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Biosci Trends 14: 72–73.    

12. Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, et al. (2003) Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today's diseases. Lancet Infect Dis 3: 722–727.    

13. Yan Y, Zou Z, Sun Y, et al. (2013) Anti-malaria drug chloroquine is highly effective in treating avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in an animal model. Cell Res 23: 300–302.    

14. Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O'Neill N, et al. (2020) Al-Jabir A, et al. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Int J Surg 76: 71–76.

15. Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN (2020) The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimm 109: 102433.    

16. Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu YJ, et al. (2020) Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty 9: 29.    

17. Kamel Boulos MN, Geraghty EM (2020) Geographical tracking and mapping of coronavirus disease COVID-19/severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic and associated events around the world: how 21st century GIS technologies are supporting the global fight against outbreaks and epidemics. Int J Health Geograph 19: 8.    

18. Schoeman D, Fielding BC (2019) Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge. Virol J 16: 69.    

19. Kutter JS, Spronken MI, Fraaij PL, et al. (2018) Transmission routes of respiratory viruses among humans. Curr Opi Virol 28: 142–151.    

20. Judson SD, Munster VJ (2019) Nosocomial Transmission of emerging viruses via aerosol generating medical procedures. Viruses 11: 940.    

21. Liu YC, Liao CH, Chang CF, et al. (2020) A locally transmitted case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Taiwan. New Eng J Med 382: 1070–1072.    

22. Chang L, Yan Y, Wang L (2020) Coronavirus disease 2019: coronaviruses and blood safety. Transf Med Rev 34: 75–80.    

23. Ghinai I, McPherson TD, Hunter JC, et al. (2020) First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA. Lancet 395: 1137–1144.    

24. Phan LT, Nguyen TV, Luong QC, et al. (2020) Importation and human-to-human transmission of a novel coronavirus in Vietnam. New England J Med 382: 87287–24.

25. Lim J, Jeon S, Shin HY, et al. (2020) Case of the index patient who caused tertiary transmission of COVID-19 infection in Korea: the application of Lopinavir/Ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19 infected Pneumonia monitored by quantitative RT-PCR. J Kore Med Sci 35: e79.    

26. Ji W, Wang W, Zhao X, et al. (2020) Cross-species transmission of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-nCoV. J Med Virol 2: 433–440.

27. Lu CW, Liu XF, Jia ZF. et al. (2020) 2019-nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored. Lancet 395: e39.    

28. Deng SQ, Peng HJ (2020) Characteristics of and public health responses to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreak in China. J Clin Med 9: 575.    

29. Wax RS, Christian MD (2020) Practical recommendations for critical care and anesthesiology teams caring for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) patients. Canadian J Anaesth 67: 568 – 576.    

30. Sah R, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Jha R, et al. (2020) Complete genome sequence of a 2019 Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) strain isolated in Nepal. Microbiol Resour Announc 9: e00169–20.

31. Robertson CA, Lowther SA, Birch T, et al. (2004) SARS and pregnancy: a case report. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 345–348.    

32. Wong SF, Chow KM, de Swiet M (2003) Severe acute respiratory syndrome and pregnancy. BJOG : an international. J Obst Gynaecol 110: 641–642.    

33. Assiri A, Abedi GR, Al Masri M, et al. (2016) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection during pregnancy: A report of 5 cases from Saudi Arabia. Clin Inf Dis 63: 951–953.    

34. Shek CC, Ng PC, Fung GP, et al. (2003) Infants born to mothers with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Pediatrics 112: e254.    

35. Chen Y, Peng H, Wang L, et al. (2020) Infants born to mothers with a new coronavirus (COVID-19). FrontPediat 8: 104.

36. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, et al. (2020) Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet 395: 809–815.    

37. Xu X, Chen P, Wang J, et al. (2020) Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. Sci China Life Sci 63: 457–460.    

38. Yeo C, Kaushal S, Yeo D (2020) Enteric involvement of coronaviruses: is faecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 possible? Lancet Gastro Hepatol 5: 335–337.    

39. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Cardona-Ospina JA, Gutierrez-Ocampo E, et al. (2020) Clinical, laboratory and imaging features of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Inf Dis 34: 101623.    

40. Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, et al. (2020) Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hos Inf 104: 246–251.    

41. Munster VJ, Koopmans M, van Doremalen N, et al. (2020) Novel coronavirus emerging in China-key questions for impact assessment. New Eng J Med 382: 692–694.    

42. Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, et al. (2020) A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version). Military Med Res 7: 4.    

43. Zhang L, Liu Y (2020) Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: A systematic review. J Med Virol 92: 479–490.    

44. Bowen WS, Svrivastava AK, Batra L, et al. (2018) Current challenges for cancer vaccine adjuvant development. Expert Rev Vacc 17: 207–215.    

45. Srivastava AK, Dinc G, Sharma RK, et al. (2014) SA-4-1BBL and monophosphoryl lipid A constitute an efficacious combination adjuvant for cancer vaccines. Cancer Res 74: 6441–6451.    

46. Barsoumian HB, Batra L, Shrestha P, et al. (2019) A novel form of 4-1BBL prevents cancer development via nonspecific activation of CD4(+) T and natural killer Cells. Cancer Res 79: 783–794.    

47. Bowen W, Batra L, Pulsifer AR, et al. (2019) Yolcu ES, Lawrenz MB, Shirwan H. Robust Th1 cellular and humoral responses generated by the Yersiniapestis rF1-V subunit vaccine formulated to contain an agonist of the CD137 pathway do not translate into increased protection against pneumonic plague. Vaccine 37: 5708–5716.

48. Dinc G, Pennington JM, Yolcu ES, et al. (2014) Lawrenz MB, Shirwan H. Improving the Th1 cellular efficacy of the lead Yersinia pestis rF1-V subunit vaccine using SA-4-1BBL as a novel adjuvant. Vaccine 32: 5035–5040.

49. Casadevall A, Pirofski LA (2020) The convalescent sera option for containing COVID-19. J Clin Invest 30: 1545–1548.

50. Bao L, Deng W, Gao H, et al. (2020) Reinfection could not occur in SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques. BioRxiv.

51. Grifoni A, Weiskopf D, I. Ramirez SI, et al. (2020) Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals. Cell 181: 1–13.    

52. de Wit E, Feldmann F, Okumura A, et al. (2018) Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of mAb treatment against MERS-CoV in common marmosets. Antiviral Res 156: 64–71.    

53. Xu J, Jia W, Wang P, et al. (2019) Antibodies and vaccines against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Emerg Microbes Infect 8: 841–856.    

54. Wang C, Li W, Drabek D, et al. (2020) A human monoclonal antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nat Commun 11: 2251.    

55. Pinto D, Park YJ, Beltramello M, et al. (2020) Cross-neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 by a human monoclonal SARS-CoV antibody. Nature 2020: 1–10.

56. Gillim-Ross L, Subbarao K (2006) Emerging respiratory viruses: challenges and vaccine strategies. Clin Microbiol Rev 19: 614–636.    

57. Tse LV, Meganck RM, Graham RL, et al. (2020) The current and future state of vaccines, antivirals and gene therapies against emerging Coronaviruses. Front Microbiol 11: 658.    

58. Elaine WL, Marta L, Anjeanette R, et al. (2008) A live attenuated severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus is immunogenic and efficacious in Golden Syrian Hamsters. J Virol 82: 7721–7724.    

59. BioSpace (2020) Codagenix and Serum Institute of India Initiate Co-Development of a Scalable, Live-Attenuated Vaccine Against the 2019 Novel Coronavirus, COVID-19. Available from: https://www.biospace.com/article/releases/codagenix-and-serum-institute-of-india-initiate-co-development-of-a-scalable-live-attenuated-vaccine-against-the-2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19/.

60. Cyranoski D (2020) This scientist hopes to test coronavirus drugs on animals in locked-down Wuhan. Nature 577: 607.    

61. Pillaiyar T, Meenakshisundaram S, Manickam M (2020) Recent discovery and development of inhibitors targeting coronaviruses. Drug Discov Today 25: 668–688.    

62. Zaher NH, Mostafa MI, Altaher AY (2020) Design, synthesis and molecular docking of novel triazole derivatives as potential CoV helicase inhibitors. Acta Pharmaceutica 70: 145–159.    

63. Du L, He Y, Zhou Y, et al. (2009) The spike protein of SARS-CoV-a target for vaccine and therapeutic development. Nat Rev Microbiol 7: 226–236.    

64. Jiang S, He Y, Liu S (2005) SARS vaccine development. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 1016–1020.    

65. Tai W, He L, Zhang X, et al. (2020) Characterization of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of 2019 novel coronavirus: implication for development of RBD protein as a viral attachment inhibitor and vaccine. Cellul Mole Immunol 17: 613–620.    

66. Chen WH, Strych U, Hotez PJ, et al. (2020) The SARS-CoV-2 vaccine pipeline: an overview. Curr Trop Med Rep 3: 1–4.

67. Yu J, Tostanoski LH, Peter L, et al. (2020) DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Science 2020: eabc6284.

68. Hodgson J (2020) The pandemic pipeline. Nat Biotechnol 38: 523–532.    

69. van Doremalen N, Lambe T, Spencer A, et al. (2020) ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination prevents SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques. BioRxiv 2020.

70. Giri R, Bhardwaj T, Shegane M, et al. (2020) Dark proteome of newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 in comparison with human and bat coronaviruses. BioRxiv.

71. Zhang L, Lin D, Sun X, et al. (2020) Crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 main protease provides a basis for design of improved alpha-ketoamide inhibitors. Science 368: 409–412.

72. Zhang L, Lin D, Kusov Y, et al. (2020) Alpha-Ketoamides as broad spectrum inhibitors of coronavirus and Enterovirus replication: Structure basedd design, synthesis and activity assessment. J Med Chem 63: 4562–4578.    

73. Gordon DE, Jang GM, Bouhaddou M, et al. (2020) SARS-CoV-2-Human protein-protein interaction map reveals drug targets and potential drug repurposing. BioRxiv.

74. Lo MK, Spengler JR, Krumpe LRH, et al. (2020) Griffithsin inhibits Nipah virus entry and fusion and can protect syrian golden Hamsters from lethal Nipah virus challenge. J Infect Dis 221: S480–S492.    

75. Lusvarghi S, Bewley CA (2016) Griffithsin: An antiviral Lectin with outstanding therapeutic Potential. Viruses 8: 296.    

76. Tyo KM, Lasnik AB, Zhang L, et al. (2020) Sustained-release Griffithsin nanoparticle-fiber composites against HIV-1 and HSV-2 infections. J Controlled Release 321: 84–99.    

77. Millet JK, Seron K, Labitt RN, et al. (2016) Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection is inhibited by griffithsin. AntiviralRes 133: 1–8.

78. Kouokam JC, Lasnik AB, Palmer KE (2016) Studies in a Murine Model confirm the safety of griffithsin and advocate its further development as a microbicide targeting HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses. Viruses 8: 311

79. Girard L, Birse K, Holm JB, et al. (2018) Impact of the griffithsin anti-HIV microbicide and placebo gels on the rectal mucosal proteome and microbiome in non-human primates. ScientReports 8: 8059.

80. Gunaydin G, Edfeldt G, Garber DA, et al. (2019) Impact of Q-Griffithsin anti-HIV microbicide gel in non-human primates: In situ analyses of epithelial and immune cell markers in rectal mucosa. Sci Rep 9: 18120.    

81. O'Keefe BR, Giomarelli B, Barnard DL, et al. (2010) Broad-spectrum in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of the antiviral protein griffithsin against emerging viruses of the family Coronaviridae. J Virol 84: 2511–2521.    

82. Loutfy MR, Blatt LM, Siminovitch KA, et al. (2003) Interferon alfacon-1 plus corticosteroids in severe acute respiratory syndrome: a preliminary study. J Amer Med Asso 290: 3222–3228.    

83. Chu CM, Cheng VC, Hung IF, et al. (2004) Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: initial virological and clinical findings. Thorax 59: 252–256.    

84. Richardson P, Griffin I, Tucker C, et al. (2020) Baricitinib as potential treatment for 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease. Lancet 395: e30–e1.    

85. Toots M, Yoon JJ, Hart M, et al. (2020) Quantitative efficacy paradigms of the influenza clinical drug candidate EIDD-2801 in the ferret model. Transl Res 218: 16–28.    

86. Hampton T (2020) New flu antiviral candidate may thwart drug resistance. J American Microbiol Assoc 323: 17.    

87. Cohen J (2020) New coronavirus threat galvanizes scientists. Science 367: 492–493.    

88. Elfiky AA (2020) Anti-HCV, nucleotide inhibitors, repurposing against COVID-19. LifeSci 248: 117477.    

89. Chaudhry U, Danial AM, Nashwa S, et al (2018) Nucleolin: role in bacterial and viral infections. EC Microbiology 14.9: 631–64090.

90. Cheng VCC, Lau SKP, Woo PCY, et al. (2007) Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus as an agent of emerging and re-emerging infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 20: 660–694.    

91. Stokes JM, Yang K, Swanson K, et al. (2020) A deep learning approach to antibiotic discovery. Cell 180: 688–702.    

© 2020 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved