Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Lagged settlement in sandy cobble strata and earth pressure on shield tunnel

1 School of Civil Engineering & Transportation, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510641, China
2 Fujian Provincial University Research Center for Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China
3 College of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China
4 Microlab, Section of Materials and Environment, Department of 3MD, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
5 Guangzhou University-Tamkang University Joint Research Centre for Engineering Structure Disaster Prevention and Control, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China

Special Issues: Mathematical Methods in Civil Engineering

Lagged settlement is a typical accident induced by shield construction in sandy cobble strata. This paper analyzed the process and mechanism of lagged settlement, results show that all phases are in accord with the characteristics of ellipsoid theory of particle flows. Based on this theory, a method for calculating coefficient of lateral earth pressure and loosened earth pressure is proposed in this research. For the coefficient of lateral earth pressure, the boundary of loosened ellipsoid is divided into two parts, the arch zone and the excavation zone, and the lateral pressure coefficients are derived respectively according to the stress state. For loosened earth pressure on tunnel, the Terzaghi earth pressure theory and Protodyakonov earth pressure theory are adapted in different conditions according to the state of loosened cobble soil. Theories developed in this study can be applied on determination of shield excavation parameters, as well as calculation of loosened earth pressure and control of tunnel support.
  Article Metrics

Keywords sandy cobble soil; lagged settlement; loosened earth pressure; coefficient of lateral earth pressure; ellipsoid theory of particle flows

Citation: Jizhi Huang, Yong Zhang, Xiaowei Ouyang, Guoyuan Xu. Lagged settlement in sandy cobble strata and earth pressure on shield tunnel. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 2019, 16(6): 6209-6230. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2019309


  • 1. Y. X. Bai, Research on ground collapse mechanism of shield tunnelling in saturated sandy pebble stratum and corresponding measures, Southwest Jiaotong University, 2012.
  • 2. J. Z. Huang and G. Y. Xu, Study on the constitutive model of sandy pebble soil, Proceedings of China-Europe Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Springer, Cham, (2018), 26–30.
  • 3. J. Z. Huang, G. Y. Xu, Y. Wang, et al., Equivalent deformation modulus of sandy pebble soil-Mathematical derivation and numerical simulation. Math. Biosci. Eng., 16 (2019), 2756–2774.
  • 4. M. Hu, Numerical method to study the physical and mechanical characteristics of sandy pebble soil and the response caused by shield tunneling, South China University of Technology, 2014.
  • 5. C. He, Y. C. Jiang, Y. Fang, et al., Impact of shield tunneling on adjacent pile foundation in sandy cobble strata. Adv. Struct. Eng. 8 (2013), 1457–1467.
  • 6. C. He, K. Feng and Y. Fang, Surface settlement caused by twin-parallel shield tunnelling in sandy cobble strata, J. Zhejiang Univ.-SCI A, 11 (2012), 858–869.
  • 7. M. N. Wang, L. H. Wei, J. F. Lu, et al., Study of face stability of cobble-soil shield tunnelling at Chengdu metro, Rock Soil Mech., 1 (2011), 99–105.
  • 8. C. L. Li, Method for calculating loosening earth pressure during construction of shield tunnels, Chin. J. Geotech. Eng., 9 (2014), 1714–1720.
  • 9. K. Terzaghi, Stress distribution in dry and in saturated sand above a yielding trap-door, Proceedings of First International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Cambridge, Massachusetts, (1936), 307–311.
  • 10. S. Z. Chen and C. X. Xu, Analysis and consideration of two ground pressure theories, Hydraulic Sci. Technol., 3 (2001), 22–24.
  • 11. J. Wu, S. M. Liao and D. Zhang, Loosening zone and earth pressure around tunnels in sandy soils based on ellipsoid theory of particle flows, Chin. J. Geotech. Eng., 35 (2013), 714–721.
  • 12. Q. M. Gong, R. L. Zhang, S. H. Zhou, et al., Method for calculating loosening earth pressure around tunnels based on ellipsoid theory of particle flows, Chin. J. Geotech. Eng., 39 (2017), 99–105.
  • 13. R. L. Handy, The arch in soil arching. J. Geotech. Eng., 111 (1985), 302–317.
  • 14. Y. R. Zheng and C. Y. Qiu, On the limitations of Protodyakonov's pressure arch theory, Mod. Tunnel Technol., 53 (2016), 1–8.
  • 15. K. Terzaghi, Theoretical soil mechanics, New York: Wiley, 1943.
  • 16. Y. C. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. He, et al., Study on delayed settlement formation induced by shield tunneling in sandy cobble strata, Chin. J. Undergr. Space Eng., 11 (2015), 171–177+265.
  • 17. Y. C. Jiang, Study on the soil disturbance mechanism of shield tunnelling in sandy cobble stratum, Southwest Jiaotong University, 2014.
  • 18. Y. X. Bai, T. Y. Qi, Y. D. Li, et al., Prediction for surface collapse deformation of shield construction based on LSSVM, Chin. J. Rock Mech. Eng., 32 (2013), 3666–3674.
  • 19. J. Du, Z. R. Mei and Y. Z. Chen, Study of failure calculation of tunnel face based on drawing ellipsoid theory, Tunnel Constr., 38 (2018), 1497–1504.
  • 20. B. H. Brady and E. T. Brown, Rock mechanics for underground mining, 3rd ed. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, (2005), 454–463.
  • 21. B. H. Brady and E. T. Brown, Rock mechanics: for underground mining. Springer science & business media, 2013
  • 22. J. P. Guo, D. Liu and R. F. Li, Reconstruction of moving transition equation for ellipsoid drawing theory, Met. Min., 10 (2015), 37–40.
  • 23. R. Kvapil, Sublevel caving. SME mining engineering handbook, 2nd ed. New York: Soc. Min. Engrs., AIME, (1992), 1789–1814.
  • 24. R. F. Li, Several main problems of ellipsoid drawing theory: The necessity of establishing quasi-ellipsoid drawing theory, China Molybdenum Industry, 5 (1994), 39–43.
  • 25. J. P. Giroud, R. Bonaparte, J. F. Beech, et al., Design of soil layer-geosynthetic systems overlying voids, Geotext. Geomembr., 9 (1990), 11–50.
  • 26. W. Zhu, X. C. Zhong and R. Jia, Simulation on relaxation effect of vertical earth pressure for shield tunnels by particle flow code, Chin. J. Geotech. Eng., 30 (2008), 750–754.
  • 27. C. J. Lee, K. H. Chiang, C. M. Kuo, Ground movement and tunnel stability when tunneling in sand ground, J. Chin. Inst. Eng., 27 (2004), 1021–1032.
  • 28. P. J. Lou and Y. Xu, Discussion on Method for calculating loosening earth pressure during construction of shield tunnels, Chin. J. Geotech. Eng., 37 (2015), 1353–1354.
  • 29. C. L. Li, Reply to discussion on Method for calculating loosening earth pressure during construction of shield tunnels, Chin. J. Geotech. Eng., 37 (2015), 1355–1356.
  • 30. A. Marston, The theory of external loads on closed conduits in the light of the latest experiments, Iowa: Iowa Engineering Experiment Station, 1930.
  • 31. R. X. Chen, B. Zhu, Y. M. Chen, et al., Modified Terzaghi loozening earth pressure based on theory of main stress axes rotation, Rock Soil Mech., 31 (2010), 1402–1406.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Tong Liu, Yuan Xie, Zhihua Feng, Yanbin Luo, Ke Wang, Wei Xu, Better Understanding the Failure Modes of Tunnels Excavated in the Boulder-Cobble Mixed Strata by Distinct Element Method, Engineering Failure Analysis, 2020, 104712, 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2020.104712

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved