Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Effects of milling time on the development of porosity in Cu by the reduction of CuO

1 Department of Applied Engineering, Safety and Technology, Millersville University, Millersville, PA, USA
2 Department of Health Science, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, CT, USA

Topical Section: Porous Materials

Microscale and nanoscale CuO was dispersed in Cu using room temperature high-energy ball milling over time intervals of 5, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. These samples were then annealed under a reducing atmosphere for 1 h at temperatures of 400, 600, 800 and 1000 °C to create porosity by the reduction of the entrained oxides. Increases in porosity exceeding 40% were achieved using intermediate milling times and annealing temperatures. When considered cumulatively, the most effective processing conditions were a milling time of 30 min and expansion at 800 °C, but variations exist within each sample type. The complex relationship between milling time and annealing temperature is investigated in terms of particle size, morphology and microstructure. The findings indicate that room temperature milling is more efficient at producing porosity than comparable cryogenic methods, and this may enable industrial scaling of the process.
  Article Metrics


1. Kennedy A (2012) Porous Metals and Metal Foams Made from Powders, In: Kondoh K, Powder Metallurgy, Rijeka, Croatia: InTech Europe, 31–46.

2. García-Moreno F (2016) Commercial applications of metal foams: their properties and production. Materials 9: 85.    

3. Ashby MF (1983) Mechnical properties of cellular solids. Metall Trans A 14: 1755–1769.    

4. Banhart J, Baumeister J (1998) Deformation characteristics of metal foams. J Mater Sci 33: 1431–1440.    

5. Banhart J (2001) Manufacture, characterisation and application of cellular metals and metal foams. Prog Mater Sci 46: 559–632.    

6. Banhart J (2007) Metal Foams-from Fundamental Research to Applications, In: Raj B, Ranganathan S, Rao KBS, et al., Frontiers in the Design of Materials, India: Universities Press.

7. Lin JH, Luo DL, Chen SL, et al. (2016) Control interfacial microstructure and improve mechanical properties of TC4-SiO2f/SiO2 joint by AgCuTi with Cu foam as interlayer. Ceram Int 42: 16619–16625.    

8. Elzey DM, Wadley HNG (1999) Open-die forging of structurally porous sandwich panels. Metall Mater Trans A 30: 2689–2699.    

9. Vancheeswaram R, Queheillalt DT, Elzey DM, et al. (2001) Simulation of the creep expansion of porous sandwich structures. Metall Mater Trans A 32: 1813–1821.    

10. Dunand DC (2004) Processing of Titanium Foams. Adv Eng Mater 6: 369–376.    

11. Banhart J (2006) Metal Foams: Production and Stability. Adv Eng Mater 8: 781–794.    

12. Banhart J (2013) Light-Metal Foams-History of Innovation and Technological Challenges. Adv Eng Mater 15: 82–111.    

13. Lefebvre LP, Banhart J, Dunand DC (2008) Porous Metals and Metallic Foams: Current Status and Recent Developments. Adv Eng Mater 10: 775–787.    

14. Atwater MA, Darling KA, Tschopp MA (2014) Towards Reaching the Theoretical Limit of Porosity in Solid State Metal Foams: Intraparticle Expansion as a Primary and Additive Means to Create Porosity. Adv Eng Mater 16: 190–195.    

15. Atwater MA, Darling KA, Tschopp MA (2016) Solid-State Foaming by Oxide Reduction and Expansion: Tailoring the Foamed Metal Microstructure in the Cu–CuO System with Oxide Content and Annealing Conditions. Adv Eng Mater 18: 83–95.    

16. Atwater MA, Darling KA, Tschopp MA (2016) Synthesis, characterization and quantitative analysis of porous metal microstructures: Application to microporous copper produced by solid state foaming. AIMS Mater Sci 3: 573–590.    

17. Atwater MA, Luckenbaugh TL, Hornbuckle BC, et al. (2017) Advancing commercial feasibility of intraparticle expansion for solid state metal foams by the surface oxidation and room temperature ball milling of copper. J Alloy Compd 724: 258–266.    

18. Cullity BD, Stock SR (2001) Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (3rd), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

19. Chen J, Lu L, Lu K (2006) Hardness and strain rate sensitivity of nanocrystalline Cu. Scripta Mater 54: 1913–1918.    

20. Bacon DJ, Kocks UF, Scattergood RO (1973) The effect of dislocation self-interaction on the Orowan stress. Philos Mag 28: 1241–1263.    

21. Andrievski R (2014) Review of thermal stability of nanomaterials. J Mater Sci 49: 1449–1460.    

22. Dunand D, Teisen J (1998) Superplastic foaming of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V. Mat Res Symp Proc 521: 231.    

23. Nes E, Ryum N, Hunderi O (1985) On the Zener drag. Acta Metall 33: 11–22.    

Copyright Info: © 2017, Mark A. Atwater, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved