Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Encapsulation of probiotics: insights into academic and industrial approaches

SRSMC UMR 7565, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, Bd des Aiguillettes-BP 70239 F-54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France

Topical Section: Soft and Polymeric Materials

The natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract play a key role in the maintenance of human health. Over the last century, the changes on the behavior of our modern society have impacted the diversity of this gut microbiome. Among the strategies to restore gut microbial homeostasis, the use of probiotics has received a lot of attention. Probiotics are living microorganisms that promote the host health when administered in adequate amounts. Its popularity increase in the marketplace in the last decade draws the interest of scientists in finding suitable methods capable of delivering adequate amounts of viable cells into the gastrointestinal tract. Encapsulation comes into the scene as an approach to enhance the cells survival during processing, storage and consumption.
This paper provides a comprehensive perspective of the probiotic field at present time focusing on the academia and industry scenarios in the past few years in terms of encapsulation technologies employed and research insights including patents. The analysis of the encapsulation technologies considering food processing costs and payload of viable bacteria reaching the gastrointestinal tract would result into successful market novelties. There is yet a necessity to bridge the gap between academia and industry.
  Article Metrics


1. FAO W (2001) Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria: 1–34.

2. Kailasapathy K (2002) Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol 3: 39–34.

3. Tripathi MK, Giri SK (2014) Probiotic functional foods: survival of probiotics during processing and storage. J Funct Foods 9: 225–24.    

4. Verna EC, Lucak S (2010) Use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disorders: what to recommend? Therap Adv Gastroenterol 3: 307–319.    

5. Fuller R (1991) Probiotics in human medicine. Gut 32: 439–442.    

6. Gupta S, Abu-Ghannam N (2012) Probiotic fermentation of plant based products: possibilities and opportunities. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52: 183–199.    

7. Lavermicocca P, Valerio F, Lonigro SL, et al. (2005) Study of adhesion and survival of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria on table olives with the aim of formulating a new probiotic food. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 4233–4240.    

8. Ying D, Schwander S, Weerakkody R, et al. (2013) Microencapsulated lactobacillus rhamnosus gg in whey protein and resistant starch matrices: probiotic survival in fruit juice. J Funct Foods 5: 98–105.    

9. Ranadheera CS, Evans CA, Adams MC, et al. (2013) Production of probiotic ice cream from goat's milk and effect of packaging materials on product quality. Small Ruminant Res 112: 174–180.    

10. López de Lacey AM, Pérez-Santín E, López-Caballero ME, et al. (2014) Survival and metabolic activity of probiotic bacteria in green tea. Food Sci Technol 55: 314–322.

11. González-Sánchez F, Azaola A, Gutiérrez-López GF, et al. (2010) Viability of microencapsulated bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis bb12 in kefir during refrigerated storage. Int J Dairy Technol 63: 431–436.

12. Noorbakhsh R, Yaghmaee P, Durance T (2013) Radiant energy under vacuum (rev) technology: a novel approach for producing probiotic enriched apple snacks. J Funct Foods 5: 1049–1056.    

13. Sheehan VM, Ross P, Fitzgerald GF (2007) Assessing the acid tolerance and the technological robustness of probiotic cultures for fortification in fruit juices. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 8: 279–284.    

14. Nualkaekul S, Cook MT, Khutoryanskiy VV, et al. (2013) Influence of encapsulation and coating materials on the survival of lactobacillus plantarum and bifidobacterium longum in fruit juices. Food Res Int 53: 304–311.    

15. Mestry AP, Mujumdar AS, Thorat BN (2011) Optimization of spray drying of an innovative functional food: fermented mixed juice of carrot and watermelon. Dry Technol 29: 1121–1131.    

16. Alegre I, Viñas I, Usall J, et al. (2011) Microbiological and physicochemical quality of fresh-cut apple enriched with the probiotic strain lactobacillus rhamnosus gg. Food Microbiol 28: 59–66.    

17. Rößle C, Auty MA, Brunton N, et al. (2010) Evaluation of fresh-cut apple slices enriched with probiotic bacteria. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 11: 203–209.    

18. Possemiers S, Marzorati M, Verstraete W, et al. (2010) Bacteria and chocolate: a successful combination for probiotic delivery. Int J Food Microbiol 141: 97–103.    

19. Roopashri AN, Varadaraj MC (2014) Hydrolysis of flatulence causing oligosaccharides by α-d-galactosidase of a probiotic lactobacillus plantarum mtcc 5422 in selected legume flours and elaboration of probiotic attributes in soy-based fermented product. Eur Food Res Technol 239: 99–115.    

20. Hugo AA, Pérez PF, Añón MC, et al. (2014) Incorporation of lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis (cidca 133) in cold-set gels made from high pressure-treated soybean proteins. Food Hydrocolloid 37: 34–39.    

21. Agheyisi R (2014) The probiotics market: ingredients, supplements, foods. BCC Research Food, Beverage Report: 1–25.

22. Del Piano M, Carmagnola S, Andorno S, et al. (2010) Evaluation of the intestinal colonization by microencapsulated probiotic bacteria in comparison with the same uncoated strains. J Clin Gastroenterol 44 Suppl 1: S42–6.

23. Piano MD, Carmagnola S, Ballarè M, et al. (2012) Comparison of the kinetics of intestinal colonization by associating 5 probiotic bacteria assumed either in a microencapsulated or in a traditional, uncoated form. J Clin Gastroenterol 46 Suppl: S85–92.

24. Heidebach T, Först P, Kulozik U (2012) Microencapsulation of probiotic cells for food applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52: 291–311.    

25. Cook MT, Tzortzis G, Charalampopoulos D, et al. (2012) Microencapsulation of probiotics for gastrointestinal delivery. J Control Release 162: 56–67.    

26. Rodrigues D, Sousa S, Rocha-Santos T, et al. (2011) Influence of l-cysteine, oxygen and relative humidity upon survival throughout storage of probiotic bacteria in whey protein-based microcapsules. Int Dairy J 21: 869–876.    

27. Teixeira PC, Castro MH, Malcata FX, et al. (1995) Survival of lactobacillus-delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus following spray-drying. J Dairy Sci 78: 1025–1031.

28. Oxley J (2014) Overview of microencapsulation process technologies, In: Gaonkar AG, Vasisht N, Khare AR, Sobel R (Eds.), Microencapsulation in the food industry, 1 Eds., San Diego: Elsevier, 35–46.

29. Burgain J, Gaiani C, Linder M, et al. (2011) Encapsulation of probiotic living cells: from laboratory scale to industrial applications. J Food Eng 104: 467–483.    

30. Gbassi GK, Vandamme T (2012) Probiotic encapsulation technology: from microencapsulation to release into the gut. Pharmaceutics 4: 149–163.    

31. Riaz QUA, Masud T (2013) Recent trends and applications of encapsulating materials for probiotic stability. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53: 231–244.    

32. Krasaekoopt W, Bhandari B, Deeth H (2003) Evaluation of encapsulation techniques of probiotics for yoghurt. Int Dairy J 13: 3–13.

33. Vidhyalakshmi R, Bhakyaraj R, Subhasree RS (2009) Encapsulation "the future of probiotics"-a review. Adv Biol Res 3: 96–103.

34. Poncelet D, Dulieu C, Jacquot M (2001) Description of the immobilisation procedures, In: Wijffels RH (Ed.), Immobilized cells, 1 Eds., Heidelbert: Springer, 15–30

35. Okuro PK, Junior FE, Favaro-Trindade CS (2013) Technological challenges for spray chilling encapsulation of functional food ingredients. Food Technol Biotechnol : 1–12.

36. Pinto SS, Fritzen-Freire CB, Muñoz IB, et al. (2012) Effects of the addition of microencapsulated bifidobacterium bb-12 on the properties of frozen yogurt. J Food Eng 111: 563–569.

37. Ying D, Sun J, Sanguansri L, et al. (2012) Enhanced survival of spray-dried microencapsulated lactobacillus rhamnosus gg in the presence of glucose. J Food Eng 109: 597–602.    

38. Chávez BE, Ledeboer AM (2007) Drying of probiotics: optimization of formulation and process to enhance storage survival. Dry Technol 25: 1193–1201.    

39. Cheow WS, Kiew TY, Hadinoto K (2014) Controlled release of lactobacillus rhamnosus biofilm probiotics from alginate-locust bean gum microcapsules. Carbohydr Polym 103: 587–595.    

40. Behboudi-Jobbehdar S, Soukoulis C, Yonekura L, et al. (2013) Optimization of spray-drying process conditions for the production of maximally viable microencapsulated l. acidophilusncimb 701748 Dry Technol 31: 1274–1283.    

41. De Castro-Cislaghi FP, Silva CD, Fritzen-Freire CB, et al. (2012) Bifidobacterium bb-12 microencapsulated by spray drying with whey: survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, tolerance to nacl, and viability during storage. J Food Eng 113: 186–193.    

42. Estevinho BN, Rocha F, Santos L, et al. (2013) Microencapsulation with chitosan by spray drying for industry applications – a review. Trends Food Sci Tech 31: 138–155.    

43. Yonekura L, Sun H, Soukoulis C, et al. (2014) Microencapsulation of lactobacillus acidophilus ncimb 701748 in matrices containing soluble fibre by spray drying: technological characterization, storage stability and survival after in vitro digestion. J Funct Foods 6: 205–214.    

44. Pedroso DL, Dogenski M, Thomazini M, et al. (2014) Microencapsulation of bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and lactobacillus acidophilus in cocoa butter using spray chilling technology. Braz J Microbiol 15: 1–7.

45. Okuro PK, Thomazini M, Balieiro JC, et al. (2013) Co- encapsulation of lactobacillus acidophilus with inulin or polydextrose in solid lipid microparticles provides protection and improves stability. Food Res Int 53: 96–103.    

46. Gouin S (2004) Micro-encapsulation: industrial appraisal of existing technologies and trends. Trends Food Sci Technol 15: 330–347.    

47. Lahtinen SJ, Ouwehand AC, Salminen SJ, et al. (2007) Effect of starch- and lipid-based encapsulation on the culturability of two bifidobacterium longum strains. Lett Appl Microbiol 44: 500–505.    

48. Dianawati D, Mishra V, Shah NP (2013) Survival of bifidobacterium longum 1941 microencapsulated with proteins and sugars after freezing and freeze drying. Food Res Int 51: 503–509.    

49. Shoji AS, Oliveira AC, Balieiro JC, et al. (2013) Viability of l. acidophilus microcapsules and their application to buffalo milk yoghurt. Food Bioprod Process 91: 83–88.

50. Mantzouridou F, Spanou A, Kiosseoglou V (2012) An inulin-based dressing emulsion as a potential probiotic food carrier. Food Res Int 46: 260–269.    

51. Muthukumarasamy P, Allan-Wojtas P, Holley RA (2006) Stability of lactobacillus reuteri in different types of microcapsules. J Food Sci : 1–5.

52. Amine KM, Champagne C, Raymond Y, et al. (2014) Survival of microencapsulated bifidobacterium longum in cheddar cheese during production and storage. Food Control 37: 193–199.    

53. López de Lacey AM, López-Caballero ME, Gómez-Estaca J, et al. (2012) Functionality of lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium bifidum incorporated to edible coatings and films. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 16: 277–282.    

54. Sathyabama S, Ranjith kumar M, Bruntha devi P, et al. (2014) Co-encapsulation of probiotics with prebiotics on alginate matrix and its effect on viability in simulated gastric environment. LWT - Food Science and Technology 57: 419–425.    

55. Doherty SB, Auty MA, Stanton C, et al. (2012) Survival of entrapped lactobacillus rhamnosus gg in whey protein micro-beads during simulated ex vivo gastro-intestinal transit. Int Dairy J 22: 31–43.    

56. Jiménez-Pranteda ML, Poncelet D, Náder-Macías ME, et al. (2012) Stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in various microbial polymers. J Biosci Bioeng 113: 179–184.    

57. Brachkova MI, Duarte MA, Pinto JF (2010) Preservation of viability and antibacterial activity of lactobacillus spp. in calcium alginate beads. Eur J Pharm Sci 41: 589–596.    

58. Khan NH, Korber DR, Low NH, et al. (2013) Development of extrusion-based legume protein isolate–alginate capsules for the protection and delivery of the acid sensitive probiotic, bifidobacterium adolescentis. Food Res Int 54: 730–737.    

59. Chavarri M, Maranon I, Carmen M (2012) Encapsulation technology to protect probiotic bacteria, In: Rigobelo E (Ed.), Probiotics, 1 Eds, Brazil: Intech, 501–539.

60. Baker CG, McKenzie KA (2005) Energy consumption of industrial spray dryers. Dry Technol 23: 365–386.    

61. Rodríguez-Huezo ME, Durán-Lugo R, Prado-Barragán LA, et al. (2007) Pre-selection of protective colloids for enhanced viability of bifidobacterium bifidum following spray-drying and storage, and evaluation of aguamiel as thermoprotective prebiotic. Food Res Int 40: 1299–1306.    

62. Corcoran BM, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, et al. (2004) Comparative survival of probiotic lactobacilli spray-dried in the presence of prebiotic substances. J Appl Microbiol 96: 1024–1039.    

63. Conrad PB, Miller DP, Cielenski PR, et al. (2000) Stabilization and preservation of lactobacillus acidophilus in saccharide matrices. Cryobiology 41: 17–24.    

64. Selmer-Olsen E, Sorhaug T, Birkeland S, et al. (1999) Survival of lactobacillus helveticus entrapped in ca-alginate inrelation to water content, storage and rehydration. J Ind Microbiol Biot 23: 1–7.

65. Dong Q, Chen M, Xin Y, et al. (2013) Alginate-based and protein-based materials for probiotics encapsulation: a review. Int J Food Sci Technol 48: 1339–1351.    

66. Ananta E, Birkeland S, Corcoran B, et al. (2004) Processing effects on the nutritional advancement of probiotics and prebiotics. Microb Ecol Health D 16: 113–124.    

67. Simpson PJ, Stanton C, Fitzgerald GF, et al. (2005) Intrinsic tolerance of bifidobacterium species to heat and oxygen and survival following spray drying and storage. J Appl Microbiol 99: 493–501.    

68. Ananta E, Volkert M, Knorr D (2005) Cellular injuries and storage stability of spray-dried lactobacillus rhamnosus gg. Int Dairy J 15: 399–409.    

69. Wang Y, Yu R, Chou C (2004) Viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented soymilk after drying, subsequent rehydration and storage. Int J Food Microbiol 93: 209–217.    

70. Champagne C, Gardner N, Brochu E, et al. (1991) The freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria. a review. Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology : 1–11.

71. De Vos P, Faas MM, Spasojevic M, et al. (2010) Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components. Int Dairy J 20: 292–302.    

72. Rutherford WM, Allen JE, Schlameus HW, et al. (1994) Process for preparing rotary disc fatty acid microspheres of microorganisms. United States Patent 5,292,657.

73. Seo JK, Kim S, Kim M, et al. (2010) Direct-fed microbials for ruminant animals. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 23: 1657–67.    

74. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2012) Scientific opinion on the efficacy of bactocell (pediococcus acidilactici) when used as a feed additive for fish. EFSA Journal 10: 2886.    

75. Harel M, Kohari-Beck K (2007) A delivery vehicle for probiotic bacteria comprising a dry matrix of polysaccharides, saccharides and polyols in a glass form and methods of making same. WO 2007079147 A2.

76. Nguyen HT, Razafindralambo H, Blecker C, et al. (2014) Stochastic exposure to sub-lethal high temperature enhances exopolysaccharides (eps) excretion and improves bifidobacterium bifidum cell survival to freeze–drying. Biochem Eng J 88: 85–94.    

77. Basholli-Salihu M, Mueller M, Salar-Behzadi S, et al. (2014) Effect of lyoprotectants on β-glucosidase activity and viability of bifidobacterium infantis after freeze-drying and storage in milk and low ph juices. Food Sci Technol 57: 276–282.

78. Champagne CP, Fustier P (2007) Microencapsulation for the improved delivery of bioactive compounds into foods. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18: 184–190.    

79. Schell D, Beermann C (2014) Fluidized bed microencapsulation of lactobacillus reuteri with sweet whey and shellac for improved acid resistance and in-vitro gastro-intestinal surviva. Food Res Int 62: 308–314.    

80. Semyonov D, Ramon O, Kovacs A, et al. (2012) Air-suspension fluidized-bed microencapsulation of probiotics. Dry Technol 30: 1918–1930.    

81. Bensch G, Rüger M, Wassermann M, et al. (2014) Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying. Appl Microbiol Biot 98: 4897–4909.    

82. Champagne C, Raymond Y, Tompkins TA (2010) The determination of viable counts in probiotic cultures microencapsulated by spray-coating. Food Microbiol 27: 1104–1111.    

83. Wu WH, Roe WS, Gimino VG, et al. (2000) Low melt encapsulation with high laurate canola oil. United States Patent 61,532,36 A.

84. Ubbink JB, Schaer-Zammaretti P, Cavadini C (2012) Probiotic delivery system. United States Application 2005/0,153,018 A1.

85. Durand H, Panes J (2001) Particles coated with a homogeneous, hydrophobic protective layer for use in pharmaceuticals, dietic or feed compositions, comprise agglomerates of microorganisms. WO200168808-A1.

86. Beck NT, Franch G, Geneau DL (2002) Edible emulsion comprising live micro-organisms and dressings or side sauces comprising said edible emulsion. WO 2002030211 A1.

87. Vos H, Poortinga AT (2010) Double emulsion and method to produce such. WO 2010039036 A1.

88. Mazer T, Kessler T (2014) Methods for extruding powered nutritional products using a high shear element. WO 2014093832 A1.

89. Frenken LG, Hammarstroem LG, Ledeboer AM (2007) Food products comprising probiotic micro-organisms and antibodies. WO 2007019901 A1.

90. Gregoriadis G, Antimisiaris SG, Gursel I (2001) Liposomes containing particulate materials. US 6451338 B1.

91. Gerez CL, Font de Valdez G, Gigante ML, et al. (2012) Whey protein coating bead improves the survival of the probiotic lactobacillus rhamnosus crl 1505 to low ph. Lett Appl Microbiol 54: 552–556.    

92. Agüeros BM, Esparza CI, Gamazo DL, et al. (2014) Microparticles for encapsulating probiotics, production and uses thereof. WO 2014006261 A2.

93. Bhushani JA, Anandharamakrishnan C (2014) Electrospinning and electrospraying techniques: potential food based applications. Trends Food Sci Technol 38 : 21–33.

94. Borges S, Barbosa J, Camilo R, et al. (2011) Effects of encapsulation on the viability of probiotic strains exposed to lethal conditions. Int J Food Sci Technol 47: 416–421.

95. Paques J, van der Linden E, van Rijn CJM, et al. (2013) Alginate submicron beads prepared through w/o emulsion and gelation with cacl2 nanoparticles. Food Hydrocolloid 31: 428–434.    

96. Laelorspoen N, Wongsasulak S, Yoovidhya T, et al. (2014) Microencapsulation of lactobacillus acidophilus in zein–alginate core–shell microcapsules via electrospraying. J Funct Foods 7: 342–349.    

97. De Prisco A, Maresca D, Ongeng D, et al. (2015) Microencapsulation by vibrating technology of the probiotic strain lactobacillus reuteri dsm 17938 to enhance its survival in foods and in gastrointestinal environment. LWT-Food Sci Technol 61: 452–62.

98. Graff S, Hussain S, Chaumeil J, et al. (2008) Increased intestinal delivery of viable saccharomyces boulardii by encapsulation in microspheres. Pharm Res 25: 1290–1296.    

99. Alisch G, Brauneis E, Pirstadt B, et al. (1995) Process and plant for the production of spherical alginate pellets. US 5,472,648.

100. Van LBH (2001) Encapsulation of sensitive components into a matrix to obtain discrete shelf-stable particles. WO 2001025414.

101. Asada M, Hatano Y, Kamaguchi R, et al. (2003) Capsules containing vital cells or tissues. WO 2003001927 A1.

102. Doherty S, Brodkorb A (2010) Production of microbeads e.g. used in vehicle for the delivering active agent to lower intestine of subject by providing suspension of denatured whey protein and active component, and treating suspension to generate microbeads. WO2010119041 A2.

103. Shah NP (1999) Probiotic bacteria: selective enumeration and survival in dairy foods. J Dairy Sci : 894–907.

104. Rokka S, Rantamäki P (2010) Protecting probiotic bacteria by microencapsulation: challenges for industrial applications. Eur Food Res Technol 231: 1–12.    

105. Foster JA, McVey Neufeld K (2013) Gut-brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression. Trends Neurosci 36: 305–312.    

Copyright Info: © 2016, Roudayna Diab, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved