Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

GIS based spatial noise impact analysis (SNIA) of the broadening of national highway in Sikkim Himalayas: a case study

1 Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majitar - 737136, Sikkim, India
2 Department of Computer Applications, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majitar - 737136, Sikkim, India

Special Issues: Applications of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems in environmental monitoring

Mountainous areas create a complex and challenging environment to conduct noise impact analysis of development projects. This paper presents a noise impact analysis methodology using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Traffic Noise Model (FHWA TNM 2.5) to portray spatial distribution of noise due to the broadening of the national highway in the mountainous terrain of East Sikkim. Two noise level indices viz., Hourly Equivalent Sound Level (Leq(H)) and Day and Night Average Sound Level (Ldn) were calculated for the year 2004 as pre-project scenario, 2014 as project implementation scenario and 2039 as post-project scenario. The overall trend shows that the proportion of area under adverse noise level decreases from pre-project scenario to project implementation scenario. Over the time the adverse noise impact in the post-project scenario reaches very close to pre-project scenario in case of both the noise indices. Overlay analysis of noise based landuse maps over actual landuse map show that non-compliance of noise based landuse will show similar trend. This trend is mainly attributed to traffic composition and highway broadening induced-traffic volume. The study shows that TNM and spatial interpolation of noise data using Empirical Bayesian Kriging (EBK) are reliable tools to perform noise impact analysis in mountainous areas. Multiple regression analysis show that, radial distance and elevation difference of noise receivers from the nearest point in the highway are significant predictors of Leq(H) and Ldn at lower percentage of heavy trucks in traffic composition.
  Article Metrics

Keywords Geographic information systems; traffic noise model (FHWA TNM 2.5); noise pollution; mountain; highway; Kriging; overlay analysis

Citation: Polash Banerjee, Mrinal K. Ghose, Ratika Pradhan. GIS based spatial noise impact analysis (SNIA) of the broadening of national highway in Sikkim Himalayas: a case study. AIMS Environmental Science, 2016, 3(4): 714-738. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2016.4.714


  • 1. Barthwal RR (2012) Environmental impact assessment (2nd Ed). New age international publishers, New Delhi, ISBN: 978-81-224-3227-5.
  • 2. Canter LW (1996) Environmental impact assessment (2nd Ed). McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • 3. Glasson J, Therivel R, Chadwi A (2005) Introduction to environmental impact assessment. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-33837-9.
  • 4. Takyl SA (2012) Review of environment impact assessment- approach, process and challenges, University of North British Colombia.
  • 5. Agarwal ML (2005) A spatial quantitative approach for environmental impact assessment of highway projects. PhD thesis, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT Khargpur, India.
  • 6. Chang KT (2008) Introduction to geographic information systems. McGraw Hill education (India) private. Ltd. New Delhi. ISBN: 987-0-07-065898-1.
  • 7. Xu Q, Ju Y, Ge H (2012) Application of GIS techniques in Environmental Impact Assessment. Adv mater res 610-613: 831-835.
  • 8. Nega T, Smith C, Bethune J, et al (2012) An analysis of landscape penetration by road infrastructure and traffic noise. Computer environ urban syst 36: 245-256.    
  • 9. Bande SU, Nawathe MP, Patil, CR (2013) Road traffic noise assessment in India- a review. Int J Eng Appl Technol 2: 82-87.
  • 10. Ouis D (2001) Annoyance from road traffic noise: a review. J Environ Psychol 21: 101-120.    
  • 11. Stansfeld SA, Matheson MP (2003) Noise Pollution: non-auditory effects on health. Brit Med Bull 68: 243-257.    
  • 12. Seto EYW, Holt A, Rivard T, et al (2007) Spatial distribution of traffic induced noise exposures in a US city: an analytic tool for assessing the health impacts of urban planning decisions. Int J Health Geogr 6: 1-16.    
  • 13. Passchier-Vermeer W, Passchier WF (2000) Noise exposure and public health. Environ Health Perspect 2000, 108 Suppl 1: 123-131.
  • 14. Schulz TJ (1978) Synthesis of social surveys on noise annoyance. J Acoust Soc Am 64: 377-405.
  • 15. Arévalo JE, Newhard K (2011) Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest. Rev Biol Trop 59: 969-980.
  • 16. Barber JR, Burdett CL, Reed SE, et al (2011) Anthropogenic noise exposure in protected natural areas: estimating the scale of ecological consequences. Landscape ecol 26: 1281-1295.
  • 17. Barber JR, Crooks KR, Fristrup KM (2009) The cost of chronic noise exposure for terrestrial organisms. Trends Ecol Evol 25: 180-189.
  • 18. Perisa SJ, Pescador M (2004) Effects of traffic noise on paserine populations in Mediterranean wooded pastures. Appl Acoust 65: 357-366.    
  • 19. Cheng H, Harris RA, Yin M (2011) Using micro data to assess traffic noise impact on residential property value: an application of Hedonic model. Transport research board annual meeting, Washington, TRB 90th meeting, 2011, paper # 11-0531
  • 20. Pamanikabud P, Tansatcha M (2003) Geographical information system for traffic noise analysis and forecasting with the appearance of barriers. Environ Model Software 18: 959-973.
  • 21. Bhattacharya CC, Jain SS, Singh SP, et al (2001) Development of comprehensive highway noise model for Indian conditions. Indian Road Congress, Paper No. 481
  • 22. FHWA (1998) FHWA traffic noise model- technical manual. Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-10-96-010. U.S. Department of Transportation Office of Environment and Planning Research and Special Programs Administration, John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Centre, Acoustics Facility, Cambridge, MA 02142-1093.
  • 23. Vij GS, Agarwal ML (2013) A review paper on research and development efforts in assessing the traffic noise on highways. Recent Res Sci Tech 5: 54-58.
  • 24. CISMHE (2008) Environmental impact assessment of Rongni Hydroelectric Project. Centre for Inter-disciplinary studies of mountain and hill environment, University of Delhi, Delhi, prepared for Madhya Bharat Power Corporation.
  • 25. NHAI (2013) Revised draft of Environmental Impact Assessment Report: consultancy services for preparation of feasibility cum preliminary design for 4/6- laning of Goa –Karnataka border- Kesndapur section of NH-66. SNC- Lavalin infrastructure Pvt. Ltd. Noida for NHAI.
  • 26. Alesheikh AA, Omidvari M (2010) Application of GIS in urban traffic noise pollution. Int J occup hyg 2: 79-84.
  • 27. Matejicek L, Janour Z (2011) Modelling of traffic related environmental pollution in the GIS. Geographic Information System, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Pg: 133-145, ISBN: 978-1-61209-925-5.
  • 28. Pamanikabud P, Tansatcha M (2001) Utilization of geographic information system for simulation of traffic noise. J Eastern Asia Society of transportation studies 4: 89-104.
  • 29. Sadek S, Kaysi I, Bedran M (2000) Geotechnical and environmental considerations in highway layouts: an integrated GIS assessment approach. Int J Appl Earth Obs 2: 190-198.
  • 30. Reed SE, Boggs JL, Mann JP (2010) SPreAD-GIS: an ArcGIS toolbox for modelling the propagation of engine noise in a wildland setting, version 2.0. San Francisco (CA): The Wilderness Society.
  • 31. Yilmaz G, Hocanli Y (2007) Mapping noise by using GIS in Sanliurfa. Environ monitor assess 121: 103-108.
  • 32. Eason S (2013) Strategic noise mapping with GIS for Universitat Jaume I smart campus: best methodology practice (Master’s thesis). Lisbon: Universidade NOVA.
  • 33. Kurakula V (2007) A GIS based approach for 3D noise modelling using 3D city models. Master thesis, International institute for geo-information science and earth observation, Enschede, the Netherlands.
  • 34. Murphy E, Henry J, Meshell C (2006). Environmental noise prediction, noise mapping and GIS integration: the case of inner Dublin, Ireland. East- European acoustical association, 8th international symposium, Transport noise and vibration, St. Petersburg, Russia.
  • 35. Taghizadeh MR, Zare M, Zare S (2013) Mapping of noise pollution by different interpolation method in recovery section of Ghandi telecommunication Cables Company. J occup health epidemiol 2: 1-11.
  • 36. Banerjee P, Ghose MK (2016) A Geographic Information System-based socioeconomic impact assessment of the broadening of national highway in Sikkim Himalaya: a case study. Environ Dev Sustain, 1-22.
  • 37. Cui H, Stein A, Myers DE (1995) Extension of spatial information, bayesian kriging and updating of prior variogram parameters. Environmetrics 6: 373-384.    
  • 38. Krivoruchko K (2012) Empirical Bayesian Kriging- implementated in ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst. Au Fall 2012 esri.com, 6-10.
  • 39. Pilz J, Speck G (2008) Why do we need and how should we implement Bayesian kriging methods. Stoch Env Res Risk A 22: 621-632.
  • 40. USDI (2012) Timber mountain off-highway vehicle area noise assessment. US Department of the Interior, Bureau of land management, Medford district office, Oregon- 97504.
  • 41. CFC (2009) Traffic noise evaluation report- Mountain Vista subarea plan- Fort Collins, Colorado. City of Fort Collins, CO 80522, FHU Ref. No. 08-164.
  • 42. Banerjee P, Ghose MK (2016) Spatial analysis of environmental impacts of highway projects with special emphasis on mountainous areas: An overview. Impact assess proj appraisal 2016: 1-15.
  • 43. Chakrabarti A (2009) Tourism in Sikkim: Quest for a Self-Reliant Economy. NEHU J 8: 81-104.
  • 44. PC (2008) Sikkim development report by Planning Commission, Govt. of India. New Delhi: Academic foundation ISBN13: 9788171886685.
  • 45. Arrawatia ML, Tambe, S (2011) Biodiversity of Sikkim Exploring and Conserving a Global Hotspot. Department of Information and Public Relations, Government of Sikkim, Gangtok. ISBN: 978-81-920437-0-9.
  • 46. EIAN (1994) The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification 1994, Govt. of India
  • 47. S.O. 382 (E) (2015) Notification number S.O. 382 (E) dated 3rd February 2015 under The Environmental Impact Assessment (Amendment) Notification 2006, Govt. of India
  • 48. ASCI (2010) Administrative Staff College of India, 2010. Environmental impact assessment guidance manual for highways, MoEF, New Delhi.
  • 49. Bhalla P, Bhattacharya P, Gupta NC (2015) Sound levels assessment in an ecotourism destination: A case study on Binsar Wildlife Sanctuary of Indian Himalayan Region. Int J Scie Res Public 5:1-7.
  • 50. Harrison RT, Clark RN, Stankey GH (1980) Predicting impact of noise on recreationists. USDA Forest Service, Equipment Technology & Development Center, San Dimas, CA.
  • 51. Lynch E, Joyce D, Fristrup K (2011) An assessment of noise audibility and sound levels in U.S. National Parks. Landscape Ecol 26: 297-309.    
  • 52. Hanson CE, Towers, DA, Lance D (2006) Transit Noise and Vibration Impact Assessment. Office of Planning and Environment, Federal Transit Administration Washington, DC 20590. FTA-VA-90-1003-06
  • 53. Govind P, Soni D (2012) Traffic noise prediction using FHWA model on national highway - 28 in India. J Environ Res Dev 7: 107-115.
  • 54. Shukla AK, Jain SS, Parida M, et al (2009) Performance of FHWA model for predicting traffic noise: A case study of Metropolitan city, Lucknow (India). Transport 24: 234-240.    
  • 55. Lloyd CD (2010) Spatial data Analysis- an introduction for GIS users. Oxford University Press, Oxford OX2 6DP.
  • 56. Antunes P, Santos R, Jordao L (2001) The application of Geographic Information Systems to determine Environmental Impact Significance. Environ impact assess rev 21: 511-535.    
  • 57. Bowerman BL, O’Connell RT (1990) Linear statistical models: An applied approach (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Duxbury.
  • 58. Field A (2009) Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). London: Sage ISBN 978-1-84787-906-6.
  • 59. Menard S (1995) Applied logistic regression analysis. Sage university paper series on quantitative applications in the social sciences, 07-106. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • 60. Myers R (1990) Classical and modern regression with applications (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Duxbury.
  • 61. Dubey B, Pal AK, Singh G (2013) Assessment of vehicular pollution in dhanbad city using CALINE 4 model. Int J Geol Earth Environ Sci 3: 156-164.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Polash Banerjee, Mrinal Kanti Ghose, Ratika Pradhan, AHP-based spatial analysis of water quality impact assessment due to change in vehicular traffic caused by highway broadening in Sikkim Himalaya, Applied Water Science, 2018, 8, 2, 10.1007/s13201-018-0699-5
  • 2. Polash Banerjee, Mrinal Kanti Ghose, Ratika Pradhan, AHP-based Spatial Air Quality Impact Assessment Model of vehicular traffic change due to highway broadening in Sikkim Himalaya, Annals of GIS, 2018, 1, 10.1080/19475683.2018.1534889
  • 3. Ying Liu, Sophie Goudreau, Tor Oiamo, Daniel Rainham, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Hong Chen, Hugh Davies, Mathieu Tremblay, James Johnson, Annelies Bockstael, Tony Leroux, Audrey Smargiassi, Comparison of land use regression and random forests models on estimating noise levels in five Canadian cities, Environmental Pollution, 2019, 113367, 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113367

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Polash Banerjee, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved