Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Potential of Celosia species in alleviating micronutrient deficiencies and prevention of diet-related chronic diseases: a review

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa

Dietary deficiencies have become significant in public health challenge globally. This is attributed in part to the pitiable quality of customary diets and the absence of variety in meals. Nutrition and health are closely related, and micronutrient deficiencies are one of the major culprits responsible for the positive correlation between diet and various diseases. Green leafy vegetables are important sources of micronutrients in most African rural communities where they have been used as an accompaniment for staple cereals and root-based diets for many years. Green leafy vegetables from Celosia species are good examples that could contribute to the prevention and management of micronutrient deficiencies and also provide food security. The main objective of this review is to highlight and bring to fore, the suitability of Celosia vegetables in preventing malnutrition and chronic diseases. Various electronic search databases including PubMed, ISI, Web of Science and CNKI were used to review existing literatures. Findings showed that Celosia species are good sources of nutrients that could prevent dietary deficiencies and chronic diseases. Also, the possible use of Celosia spp. in the development of functional foods has the potential to reduce malnutrition and foster complementary plans for the prevention and management of diseases. Therefore, further studies on formulations of food products using vegetables from Celosia species could contribute to the prevention and management of micronutrient deficiencies, chronic diseases and also provide food security.
  Article Metrics


1. Jimoh MO, Afolayan AJ, Lewu FB (2018) Suitability of Amaranthus species for alleviating human dietary deficiencies. S Afr J Bot 115: 65–73.    

2. Arimond M, Wiesmann D, Becquey E, et al. (2010) Simple food group diversity indicators predict micronutrient adequacy of women's diets in 5 diverse, resource-poor settings. J Nutr 140: 2059 – 2069.    

3. Ghosh-Jerath S, Singh A, Magsumbol MS, et al. (2016) Contribution of indigenous foods towards nutrient intakes and nutritional status of women in the Santhal tribal community of Jharkhand, India. Public Health Nutr 19: 2256–2267.    

4. Nair MK, Augustine LF, Konapur A (2016) Food-based interventions to modify diet quality and diversity to address multiple micronutrient deficiency. Front Pub Health 3: 277.

5. Bailey RL, West Jr KP, Black RE et al. (2015) The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies. Anal Nutrit Metabol 66: 22–33.

6. White PJ, Broadley MR (2009) Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets-iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. New Phytol 182: 49–84.    

7. Fitzpatrick TB, Basset GJ, Borel P, et al. (2013) Vitamin deficiencies in humans: can plant science help? Plant Cell 24: 395–414.

8. FAO, WFP and IFAD (2012) The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2012. Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. Rome, FAO.

9. FAO, IFAD and WFP (2015) The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2015. Meeting the 2015 international hunger targets: taking stock of uneven progress. Rome, FAO.

10. Conway G , Wilson K, Shah R (2012) One billion hungry: can we feed the world? Cornell University Press.

11. Nordin SM, Boyle M, Kemmer TM (2013) Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health. J Acad Nutr Diet 113: 581–595.    

12. UNICEF (2016) Foreword-The state of the world's children: a fair chance for every child. 6–7.

13. Oldewage-Theron WH, Dicks EG, Napier CE (2006) Poverty, household food insecurity and nutrition: coping strategies in an informal settlement in the Vaal Triangle, South Africa. Pub Health 120: 795–804.    

14. Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) (2013) Consensus study on improved nutritional assessment of micronutrients in South Africa. The Woods, 41 De Havilland Crescent, Persequor Park Meiring Naudé Road, Lynnwood 0020, Pretoria, South Africa, 21–36.

15. Faber M, Wenhold F (2007) Nutrition in contemporary South Africa. Water SA 33: 393–400.

16. US Department of Health and Human Services (2017) Dietary guidelines for Americans 2015 – 2020. Skyhorse Publishing Inc.

17. Groce N, Challenger E, Berman-Bieler R, et al. (2014) Malnutrition and disability: unexplored opportunities for collaboration. Paed Int Child Health 34: 308 – 314.    

18. Shenkin A (2006) The key role of micronutrients. Clin Nutr 25:1 – 13.    

19. Vardiman JW, Thiele J, Arber DA, et al. (2009) The 2008 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia: rationale and important changes. Blood 114: 937 – 951.    

20. Jacobsen SE, Sørensen M, Pedersen SM, et al. (2013) Feeding the world: genetically modified crops versus agricultural biodiversity. Agron Sustain Dev 33: 651 – 662.    

21. Jomova K, Valko M (2011) Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease. Toxicol 283: 65–87.    

22. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, et al. (2007) Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39: 44–84.    

23. Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, et al. (2010) Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radic Biol Med 49: 1603–1616.    

24. Tarantino G, Porcu C, Arciello M, et al. (2018) Prediction of carotid intima-media thickness in obese patients with low prevalence of comorbidities by serum copper bioavailability. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 33: 1511 – 1517.    

25. Machado M, Cortez-Pinto H (2016) Diet, microbiota, obesity, and NAFLD: a dangerous quartet. Int J Mol Sci 17: 481.    

26. Feldman A, Aigner E, Weghuber D, et al. (2015) The potential role of iron and copper in pediatric obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. BioMed Res Int Volume 2015: 1 – 7.

27. Song M, Vos M, McClain C (2018) Copper-fructose interactions: a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Nutrients 10: 1815.    

28. He FJ, Mac Gregor GA (2008) Beneficial effects of potassium on human health. Physiol Plant 133: 725–735.    

29. Larsson SC, Virtanen MJ, Mars M, et al. (2008) Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers. Ann Intern Med 168: 459 – 465.    

30. Cook NR, Obarzanek E, Cutler JA, et al. (2009) Joint effects of sodium and potassium intake on subsequent cardiovascular disease: the trials of hypertension prevention follow-up study. Arch Int Med 169: 32–40.    

31. Goldstein LB, Bushnell CD, Adams RJ, et al. (2010) Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 42: 517–584.

32. International Council for Control of Iodine deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) (2006) Tracking progress towards sustaining elimination of IDD in seven states 1999–2005. New Delhi: ICCIDD, Available from: http://www.iqplusin.org/Reports.htm.

33. Aikins ADG, Unwin N, Agyemang C, et al. (2010) Tackling Africa's chronic disease burden: from the local to the global. Global Health 6: 5.    

34. Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, et al. (2010) Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Radic Biol Med 49: 1603–1616.    

35. Bobade H (2015) Honey-cereals extrudates: development and assessment of functional properties (Doctoral dissertation, PAU). Available from: http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/5810015912.

36. Mayer JE, Pfeiffer WH, Beyer P (2008) Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Curr Opin Plant Biol 11: 166–170.    

37. Bouis HE, Welch RM (2010) Biofortification-a sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition in the global south. Crop Sci 50: 20–32.    

38. Jacobs DR, Tapsell LC (2013) Food synergy: the key to a healthy diet. Proc Nutr Soc 72: 200–206.    

39. Thompson B (2007) Food-based approaches for combating iron deficiency. Nutritional Anemia 337: 1–21.

40. Tanumihardjo SA (2008) Food-based approaches for ensuring adequate vitamin A nutrition. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 7: 373–381.

41. Odhav B, Beekrum S, Akula US, et al. (2007) Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of traditional leafy vegetables in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Food Compos Anal 20: 430–435.    

42. Aregheore EM (2012) Nutritive value and inherent anti-nutritive factors in four indigenous edible leafy vegetables in human nutrition in Nigeria: a review. J Food Sci Res 1: 1–14.

43. Mavengahama S (2014) The contribution of indigenous vegetables to food security and nutrition within selected sites in South Africa. Stellenbosch University, Available from: http://scholar.sun.ac.za.

44. Anderson EN (2014) Everyone eats: understanding food and culture. Second Edition, New York: NYU Press.

45. Monteiro CA, Cannon G, Levy RB, et al. (2019) Ultra-processed foods: what they are and how to identify them. Public Health Nutr 2019: 1–6.

46. Mensah JK, Okoli RI, Ohaju-Obodo JO, et al. (2008) Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria. Afri J Biotechnol 7: 2305–2308.

47. Gupta S, Lakshmi AJ, Manjunath MN, et al. (2005) Analysis of nutrient and antinutrient content of underutilized green leafy vegetables. LWT-Food Sci Technol 38: 339–345.    

48. Fentahun MT, Hager H (2009) Exploiting locally available resources for food and nutritional security enhancement: wild fruits diversity, potential and state of exploitation in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Food Sec 1: 207–219.    

49. Rahman AHM, Gulshana MIA (2014) Taxonomy and medicinal uses on amaranthaceae family of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Appl Ecol Environ Sci 2: 54–59.

50. Varadharaj V, Muniyappan J (2017) Phytochemical and phytotherapeutic properties of Celosia species-a review. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 9: 820–825.

51. Nidavani RB, Mahalakshmi AM, Seema M, et al. (2014) Pharmacology of Celosia argentea L. J Atoms Molecules 4: 635–644.

52. Ramesh BN, Mahalakshmi AM, Mallappa SH (2013) Towards a better understanding of an updated ethnopharmacology of Celosia argentea L. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 5: 54–59.

53. Adediran OA, Gana Z, Oladiran JA, et al. (2016) Effect of age at harvest and leaf position on the yield and nutritional composition of Celosia argentea L. Int J Plant Soil Sci 5: 359–365.

54. Grubben GJ (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA). Prota.

55. Tang Y, Xin HL, Guo ML (2016) Review on research of the phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Celosia argentea. Rev Bras Farmacogn 26: 787 – 796.    

56. Taha RM, Wafa SN (2012) Plant regeneration and cellular behaviour studies in Celosia cristata grown in vivo and in vitro. Sci World J 2012: 359413.

57. Wang Y, Lou Z, Wu QB, et al. (2010) A novel hepatoprotective saponin from Celosia cristata L. Fitoterapia 81: 1246–1252.    

58. Ojieh AE, Adegor EC, Lawrence EO (2013) Preliminary phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory properties of Celosia isertii. European J Med Plants 3: 369–380.    

59. Ogungbenle HN, Otemuyiwa FF (2015) Food properties and amino acid composition of Celosia Spicata leaves. Adv Anal Chem 5: 1 – 7.    

60. Milner A (2017) Grab a gardener. 250 South Oak Way, Green park Reading, RG2 6UG. Available from: www.grabagardener.com.

61. Yarger L (2007) Lagos spinach. Echo technical note, 1739, Durance Road, North forth myers, Fl33917.

62. Ayodele JT, Olajide OS (2011) Proximate and amino acid composition of Celosia argentea leaves. Nig J Basic Appl Sci 19: 162–165.

63. Ilodibia CV, Chukwuka C, Akachukwu EE, et al. (2016) Anatomical, proximate, mineral and vitamin studies on Celosia argentea (Linn). British Biotechnol J 15: 1–7.

64. Emebu PK, Anyika JU (2011) Proximate and mineral composition of kale (Brassica oleracea) grown in Delta State, Nigeria. Pak J Nut 10: 190–194.    

65. Ogbede C, Saidu AN, Kahiru AY, et al. (2015) Nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of Brassica oleraceae Var. Capitala L. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 5: 19–25.

66. Sinha R (2018) Nutritional analysis of few selected wild edible leafy vegetables of tribal of Jharkhand, India. IJCMAS 7: 1323–1329.

67. Khoo HE, Prasad KN, Kong KW, et al. (2011) Carotenoids and their isomers: color pigments in fruits and vegetables. Molecules 16: 1710–1738.    

68. Olaiya C, Adebisi J (2010) Phytoevaluation of the nutritional values of ten green leafy vegetables in South-Western Nigeria. Int J Nutr Wellness 9: 13.

69. Coates PM, Blackman M, Betz JM, et al. (2010) Encyclopedia of dietary supplements. Second Edition, Informa Healthcare, Telephone House, 69 – 77 Paul Street, London EC2A 4LQ, UK.

70. Diemeleou CA, Zoue LT, Niamke SL (2014) Physicochemical and nutritive characterization linoleic acid-rich oil from seeds of Celosia argentea. Chiang Mai J Sci 41: 1157–1170.

71. Hanif R, Iqbal Z, Iqbal M, et al. (2006) Use of vegetables as nutritional food: role in human health. J Agric Biol Sci 1: 18–22.

72. Adediran OA, Gana Z, Oladiran JA, et al. (2016) Effect of age at harvest and leaf position on the yield and nutritional composition of Celosia argentea L. Int J Plant Soil Sci 5: 359–365.

73. Sheela K, Nath KG, Vijayalakshmi D, et al. (2004) Proximate composition of underutilized green leafy vegetables in Southern Karnataka. J Hum Ecol 15: 227–229.    

74. Johnson EJ, Russell RM (2010) Beta-carotene. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, et al., Encyclopedia of dietary supplements. Second Edition, London and New York: Information Healthcare, 115–120.

75. Awang Y, Shaharom AS, Mohamad RB, et al. (2009) Chemical and physical characteristics of cocopeat-based media mixtures and their effects on the growth and development of Celosia cristata. Am J Agric Biol Sci 4: 63–71.    

76. Aremu MO, Olaofe O, Akintayo ET (2005) Nutritional qualities assessment of the presence of hull in some Nigeria underutilized legume seeds. Bull Pure Appl Sci 24: 47–52.

77. Ogungbenle HN (2011) Chemical, invitro digestibility and fatty acids composition of African nutmeg. Ann Sci Biotechnol 2: 46–51.

78. Olaofe O, Adeyeye EI, Ojugbo S (2013) Comparative study of proximate, amino acids and fatty acids of Moringa oleifera tree. Elixir Appl Chem 54: 12543–12554.

79. Ajayi I (2014) Oil content and fatty acid composition of Dioclea reflexa seeds. IOSR J Appl Chem 7: 68–73.

80. Elekofehinti OO (2015) Saponins: anti-diabetic principles from medicinal plants-a review. Pathophysiology 22: 95–103.    

81. Akinnibosun FI, Adeola MO (2015) Quality assessment and proximate analysis of Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea and Talinum triangulare obtained from open markets in Benin city, Nigeria. J Appl Sci Environ Manage 19: 727–734.

82. Borokini FB, Olaleye MT, Lajide L (2017) Nutritional and chemical compositions of two underutilized vegetables in Nigeria. Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res 52: 201–208.    

83. Lisiewska Z, Kmiecik W, Korus A (2008) The amino acid composition of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala), fresh and after culinary and technological processing. Food Chem 108: 642–648.

84. Makkar HP, Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2007) Tannins. In: Plant secondary metabolites, Humana Press, River view Drive, Suite 208 Totowa, New Jersey 07512, 67 – 81.

85. Unuofin JO, Otunola GA, Afolayan AJ (2017) Nutritional evaluation of Kedrostis africana (L.) Cogn: an edible wild plant of South Africa. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 7: 443–449.

86. Kunyanga CN, Imungi JK, Okoth M, et al. (2011) Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya. J Food Sci. 76: 560–567.    

87. Medoua GN, Oldewage-Theron WH (2014) Effect of drying and cooking on nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of morogo (Amaranthus hybridus) a traditional leafy vegetable grown in South Africa. J Food Sci Technol 51: 736–742.    

88. Moyo SM, Mavumengwana V, Kayitesi E (2018) Effects of cooking and drying on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of African green leafy vegetables. Food Rev Int 34: 248–264.    

89. Dolinsky M, Agostinho C, Ribeiro D, et al. (2016) Effect of different cooking methods on the polyphenol concentration and antioxidant capacity of selected vegetables. J Cul Sci Tech 14: 1–12.    

90. Cui S, Zhang T, Zhao S, et al. (2013) Evaluation of three ornamental plants for phytoremediation of Pb-contamined soil. Int J Phytorem 15: 299 – 306.    

91. Liu J, Shang W, Zhang X, et al. (2014) Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species. J Hazard Mater 267: 136 – 141.

92. Shen Z, Wang Y, Chen Y, et al. (2017) Transfer of heavy metals from the polluted rhizosphere soil to Celosia argentea L. in copper mine tailings. Hortic Environ Biotechnol 58: 93 – 100.    

93. Emina A, Okuo J, Anegbe B (2017) Pb uptake by quail grass (Celosia argentea) grown on Pb-acid battery soil treated with starch stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles. Ife J Sci 19: 283 – 291.    

94. Hogan S, Canning C, Sun S, et al. (2010) Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice. J Agric Food Chem 58: 11250–11256.    

95. Balasubrahmanyam A, Baranwal VK, Lodha ML, et al. (2000) Purification and properties of growth stage-dependent antiviral proteins from the leaves of Celosia cristata. Plant Sci 154: 13–21.    

96. Begam M, Narwal S, Roy S, et al. (2006) An antiviral protein having deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease activity from leaves of the post-flowering stage of Celosia cristata. Biochem 71: 44–48.

97. Gholizadeh A, Kumar M, Balasubrahmanyam A, et al. (2004) Antioxidant activity of antiviral proteins from Celosia cristata. J Plant Biochem Biot 13: 13–18.    

98. IswaryaVelu AR, Gopalakrishnan D, Manivannan B, et al. (2012) Comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Amaranthus tristis and Celosia argentea var spicata. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012: 1–4.

99. Khare CP (2008) Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. Springer-Verlag, New York.

100. Xiang C, Guo M, Song H, et al. (2010) Study on chemical constituents of Celosia Cristata seed. J Jilin Agric Univ 32: 657–660.

101. Harding AH, Wareham NJ, Bingham SA, et al. (2008) Plasma vitamin C level, fruit and vegetable consumption, and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: the European prospective investigation of cancer-Norfolk prospective study. Arch Int Med 168: 1493–1499.    

102. Ghule S, Prakash T, Kotresha D, et al. (2010) Anti-diabetic activity of Celosia argentea root in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Green Pharm 4: 206–211.    

103. Vetrichelvan T, Jegadeesan M, Devi BAU (2002) Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea Linn.: seeds in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 25: 526–528.    

104. Shan J, Ren J, Yang J, et al. (2005) Hypoglycemic effect of Celosia argentea fractions in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Zhongguo yao xue za zhi 40: 1230–1233.

105. Fitoussi R, Estève D, Delassus AS, et al. (2013) Impact of Celosia cristata extract on adipogenesis of native human CD34 + /CD31 − cells. J Cosmet Dermatol Sci Appl 3: 55–63.

106. Xue Q, Sun ZL, Guo ML, et al. (2011) Two new compounds from Semen celosiae and their protective effects against CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity. Nat prod Res 25: 772–780.    

107. Sun ZL, Gao GL, Xia YF, et al. (2011) A new hepoprotective saponin from Semen Celosia cristatae. Fitoterapia 82: 591–594.    

108. Al-Snafi AE (2015) Therapeutic properties of medicinal plants: a review of their detoxification capacity and protective effects (part 1). Asian J Pharma Sci & Techn 5: 257–270.

109. Kim YS, Hwang JW, Sung SH, et al. (2015) Antioxidant activity and protective effect of extract of Celosia cristata L. flower on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity. Food Chem 168: 572 – 579.

110. Wu Q, Wang Y, Guo M (2011) Triterpenoid saponins from the seeds of Celosia argentea and their anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. Chem Pharm Bull 59: 666–671.    

111. Rub RA, Patil MJ, Siddiqui AA, et al. (2015) Free radical scavenging and cytotoxic potential of Celosia argentea. Pharmacogn J 7:191–197.    

112. Hayakawa Y, Fuji H, Hase K, et al. (1998) Anti-metastatic and immunomodulating properties of the water extract from Celosia argentea seeds. Biol Pharm Bull 21: 1154–1159.    

113. Nirmal SA, Rub RA, Zaware BB, et al. (2011) Immunomodulating activity of Celosia argentea Linn. aerial parts. Lat Am J Pharm 30: 168–171.

114. Navarra T (2004) The encyclopedia of vitamins, minerals, and supplements. Infobase Publishing.

115. Okpako E, Ajibesin K (2015) Antimicrobial activity of Celosia argentea L. Amaranthaceae. Am J Res Comm 3: 123–133.

116. Yun SM, Choi BH, Ku HO, et al. (2008) Antimicrobial activities of the flower extract of Celosia cristata L. Planta Med 74: 31.

117. Rubini D, Sudhahar D, Anandaragopal K (2012) Phytochemical investigation and anthelmintic activity of Celosia cristata leaf extract. IRJP 3: 335–336.

118. Islam S, Shajib MS, Ahmed T (2016) Antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of Celosia cristata Linn. in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 16: 400.    

119. Joshi PC, Patil SA, Sambrekar SN (2012) The antiurolithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of Celosia argentea (seeds) in rats. Univers J Pharm 1: 52–60.

120. Kachchhi NR, Parmar RK, Tirgar PR, et al. (2012) Evaluation of the antiurolithiatic activity of methanolic extract of Celosia argentea roots in rats. Int J Phytopharm 3: 249–255.

121. Thompson B, Amoroso L (2012) Combating micronutrient deficiencies: food-based approaches. CABI.

122. Bamji MS (2016) Food-based approach to combat micronutrient deficiencies. Proc Natl Acad Sci India A 82: 1529–1540.

123. Allen LH, De Benoist B, Dary O, et al. (2006) Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

124. Gibson RS, Anderson VP (2009) A review of interventions based on dietary diversification or modification strategies with the potential to enhance intakes of total and absorbable zinc. Food Nutr Bull 30: S108–S143.    

125. Maki KC, Beiseigel JM, Jonnalagadda SS, et al. (2010) Whole-grain ready-to-eat oat cereal, as part of a dietary program for weight loss, reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with overweight and obesity more than a dietary program including low-fiber control foods. J Am Diet Assoc 110: 205–214.    

126. Mishra N, Chandra R (2012) Development of functional biscuit from soy flour & rice bran. Int J Agric Food Sci 2: 14–20.

127. Gharibzahedi SMT, Jafari SM (2017) The importance of minerals in human nutrition: Bioavailability, food fortification, processing effects and nanoencapsulation. Trends Food Sci Technol 62: 119–132.    

128. Liyanage C, Hettiarachchi M (2011) Food fortification. Ceylon Med J 56: 124–127.    

129. Gupta S, Prakash J (2011) Utilization of micronutrient rich dehydrated green leafy vegetables in formulation of traditional products. Adv Food Sci 33: 34–43.

130. Gupta A, Sheikh S, Yadav N (2013) Development of under-utilised Celosia argentea based value added product and its impact on haemoglobin status of adolescent girls. Acta Hortic 979: 211–216.

131. Zuck C (2015) Reformation of specialty cut flower production for Celosia cristata. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy, Available from: http://hdl.handle.net/11299/175833.2015.

132. Akinfasoye JA, Ogunniyan DJ, Akanbi WB, et al. (2008) Effects of organic fertilizer and spacing on growth and yield of Lagos spinach (Celosia argentea L.). J Agric Soc Res 8: 70 – 77.

133. Denton OA, Schippers RR, Oyen LPA et al. (2004) Plant resources of tropical Africa 2, vegetables. Fondation PROTA, Wageningen, Pays-Bas/CTA, Wageningen Pays-Bas.

134. Ortiz MA, Hyrczyk K, Lopez RG (2012) Comparison of high tunnel and field production of specialty cut flowers in the Midwest. Hort Sci 47: 1265–1269.

135. Van Rijswick C (2015) World floriculture map 2015. Rabobank industry note #475, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

136. The Center for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI) (2018) Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). Celosia argentea.

137. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, et al. (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Sciences 327: 812–818.    

138. Lewu FB, Mavengahama S (2011) Utilization of wild vegetables in four districts of northern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Afr J Agric Res 6: 4159–4165.

139. Lobelle DB, Burke MB, Tebaldi C, et al. (2008) Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030. Science 319: 607–610.    

140. Van Der Lans CJM, Snoek HM, De Boer FA, et al. (2012) Vegetable chains in Kenya: production and consumption of vegetables in the Nairobi metropolis (No. 1130). Wageningen UR Greenhouse Hort.

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved