Research article

Deaths in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention: A Fiscal Year (FY) 2021–2023 update

  • Received: 06 December 2023 Revised: 01 February 2024 Accepted: 06 February 2024 Published: 27 February 2024
  • Background 

    This study describes the deaths of individuals in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention between FY2021–2023, updating a report from FY2018–2020, which identified an increased death rate amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods 

    Data was extracted from death reports published online by ICE. Causes of deaths were recorded, and death rates per 100,000 admissions were calculated using population statistics reported by ICE. Reports of individuals released from ICE custody just prior to death were also identified and described.

    Results 

    There were 12 deaths reported from FY2021–2023, compared to 38 deaths from FY2018–2020. The death rate per 100,000 admissions in ICE detention was 3.251 in FY2021, 0.939 in FY2022, and 1.457 in FY2023, compared with a pandemic-era high of 10.833 in FY2020. Suicide caused 1 of 12 (8.3%) deaths in FY2021–2023 compared with 9 of 38 (23.7%) deaths in FY2018–2020. COVID-19 was contributory in 3 of 11 (25%) medical deaths in FY2021–2023, compared with 8 of 11 (72.7%) in the COVID-era months of FY2020 (p = 0.030). Overall, 4 of 11 (36.3%) medical deaths in FY2021–2023 resulted from cardiac arrest in detention facilities, compared with 6 of 29 (20.3%) in FY2018–2020. Three deaths of hospitalized individuals released from ICE custody with grave prognoses were identified.

    Conclusions 

    The death rate among individuals in ICE custody decreased in FY2021–2023, which may be explained in part by the release of vulnerable individuals following recent federal legal determinations (e.g., Fraihat v. ICE). Identification of medically complex individuals released from ICE custody just prior to death and not reported by ICE indicates that reported deaths underestimate total deaths associated with ICE detention. Attentive monitoring of mortality outcomes following release from ICE custody is warranted.

    Citation: Cara Buchanan, Sameer Ahmed, Joseph Nwadiuko, Annette M. Dekker, Amy Zeidan, Eva Bitrán, Thomas Urich, Briah Fischer, Elizabeth R.E. Burner, Parveen Parmar, Sophie Terp. Deaths in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention: A Fiscal Year (FY) 2021–2023 update[J]. AIMS Public Health, 2024, 11(1): 223-235. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2024011

    Related Papers:

  • Background

    This study describes the deaths of individuals in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention between FY2021–2023, updating a report from FY2018–2020, which identified an increased death rate amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods

    Data was extracted from death reports published online by ICE. Causes of deaths were recorded, and death rates per 100,000 admissions were calculated using population statistics reported by ICE. Reports of individuals released from ICE custody just prior to death were also identified and described.

    Results

    There were 12 deaths reported from FY2021–2023, compared to 38 deaths from FY2018–2020. The death rate per 100,000 admissions in ICE detention was 3.251 in FY2021, 0.939 in FY2022, and 1.457 in FY2023, compared with a pandemic-era high of 10.833 in FY2020. Suicide caused 1 of 12 (8.3%) deaths in FY2021–2023 compared with 9 of 38 (23.7%) deaths in FY2018–2020. COVID-19 was contributory in 3 of 11 (25%) medical deaths in FY2021–2023, compared with 8 of 11 (72.7%) in the COVID-era months of FY2020 (p = 0.030). Overall, 4 of 11 (36.3%) medical deaths in FY2021–2023 resulted from cardiac arrest in detention facilities, compared with 6 of 29 (20.3%) in FY2018–2020. Three deaths of hospitalized individuals released from ICE custody with grave prognoses were identified.

    Conclusions

    The death rate among individuals in ICE custody decreased in FY2021–2023, which may be explained in part by the release of vulnerable individuals following recent federal legal determinations (e.g., Fraihat v. ICE). Identification of medically complex individuals released from ICE custody just prior to death and not reported by ICE indicates that reported deaths underestimate total deaths associated with ICE detention. Attentive monitoring of mortality outcomes following release from ICE custody is warranted.



    加载中

    Acknowledgments



    CB had full access to all study data and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and accuracy of the data analysis. ST, CB, SA, ERB, and PP were responsible for concepts and design. ST, CB, SA, TU, ERB, and PP contributed to data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. ST and CB were primarily responsible for manuscript drafting, and all authors including SA, ERB, PP, JN, AD, AZ, EB, and BF contributed to critical revision of the manuscript for content. ST was responsible for statistical analysis.

    Conflicts of interest



    Eva Bitrán is a Senior Staff Attorney with the ACLU of Southern California and served as counsel on the Roman v. Wolf case, but does not believe that these affiliations represent a conflict of interest for this study. Previous published work included in this article was supported by the Haas Foundation. All other authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work.

    [1] U.S. Department of Homeland SecurityDepartment of Homeland Security Appropriations Bill, 2018 (2018). Available from: https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/3355
    [2] U.S. Immigration and Customs EnforcementDetainee Death Reporting (2023). Available from: https://www.ice.gov/detain/detainee-death-reporting
    [3] U.S. Immigration and Customs EnforcementICE Directive 11003.5: Notification, Review, and Reporting Requirements for Detainee Deaths (2021). Available from: https://www.ice.gov/doclib/detention/directive11003-5.pdf
    [4] Terp S, Ahmed S, Burner E, et al. (2021) Deaths in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention: FY2018–2020. AIMS Public Health 8: 81-89. https://doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2021006
    [5] Dooling K, Gargano JW, Moulia D, et al. (2021) Use of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥16 years: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices—United States, September 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 70: 1344. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7038e2
    [6] U.S. Immigration and Customs EnforcementFY 2023 ICE Statistics (2023). Available from: https://www.ice.gov/doclib/eoy/iceAnnualReportFY2023.pdf
    [7] Case: Fraihat v. U.S. Immigration and Customs EnforcementUnited States District Court for the Central District of California (2021). Available from: https://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2021/10/20/20-55634.pdf
    [8] American Immigration Lawyers AssociationDeaths at Adult Detention Centers (2023). Available from: https://www.aila.org/library/deaths-at-adult-detention-centers
    [9] American Civil Liberties UnionACLU Seeks Public Records to Uncover Information About People Released From ICE Custody on Their Deathbeds (2021). Available from: https://www.aclu.org/press-releases/aclu-seeks-public-records-uncover-information-about-people-released-ice-custody-their
    [10] Castillo A, Zou JJ (2022) ICE rushed to release a sick woman, avoiding responsibility for her death. She isn't alone. Los Angeles Times . Available from: https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2022-05-13/ice-immigration-detention-deaths-sick-detainees.
    [11] Los Angeles Times.ICE released dying detainees, avoiding responsibility. The Times: Essential news from the LA Times (2022) . Available from: https://www.latimes.com/podcasts/story/2022-05-20/ice-immigration-dying-sick-detainees.
    [12] Tchekmedyian A, Castillo A (2021) ICE released a sick detainee from Adelanto immigration facility. He died three days later. Los Angeles Times . Available from: https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2021-03-20/adelanto-detainee-death.
    [13] Granski M, Keller A, Venters H (2015) Death rates among detained immigrants in the United States. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12: 14414-14419. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121114414
    [14] U.S. Immigration and Customs EnforcementU.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Fiscal Year 2022 Annual Report (2022). Available from: https://www.ice.gov/doclib/eoy/iceAnnualReportFY2022.pdf.
    [15] U.S. Immigration and Customs EnforcementNews Releases and Statements (2023). Available from: https://www.ice.gov/newsroom.
    [16] Bryant E (2021) ICE's Deadly Practice of Abandoning Immigrants with Disabilities and Mental Illnesses on the Street. Vera Institute of Justice . Available from: https://www.vera.org/ices-deadly-practice-of-abandoning-immigrants-with-disabilities-and-mental-illnesses-on-the-street/ices-deadly-practice-of-abandoning-immigrants-with-disabilities-and-mental-illnesses-on-the-street.
    [17] U.S. Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector GeneralICE and CBP Deaths in Custody during FY 2021 (2023). Available from: https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2023-02/OIG-23-12-Feb23.pdf.
    [18] U.S. Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector GeneralViolations of ICE Detention Standards at Adams County Correctional Center (2021). Available from: https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2021-07/OIG-21-46-Jul21.pdf.
    [19] American Civil Liberties UnionACLU Files Public Records Lawsuit Against ICE for Wrongfully Withholding Documents Regarding Access to Counsel in Immigration Detention (2022). Available from: https://www.aclu.org/press-releases/aclu-files-public-records-lawsuit-against-ice-wrongfully-withholding-documents.
    [20] ACLU of Southern CaliforniaRoman V. Wolf (2020). Available from: https://www.aclusocal.org/sites/default/files/ord.dct_.914_amended_adelanto_population_reduction_order.pdf.
    [21] Roman VW United States District Court Central District of California Western Division (2021). Available from: https://www.aclusocal.org/sites/default/files/aclu_socal_roman_20200413_complaint.pdf.
    [22] Iovino N Ninth Circuit Grapples With Handling of Covid Risk at ICE Detention Centers. Courthouse News Service (2021). Available from: https://www.courthousenews.com/handling-of-covid-risk-at-ice-detention-centers-debated-at-ninth-circuit/.
    [23] United States District Court Central District of California Western DivisionSpecial Master's Report and Recommendation Following the Investigation into the Death of Martin Vargas Arellano (2021). Available from: https://www.aclusocal.org/sites/default/files/special_masters_report_and_recommendation_-_death_of_arellano.pdf.
    [24] Aquino A Family Sues Over ICE Detainee's COVID-19 Death. Law360 (2023). Available from: https://www.law360.com/articles/1584250.
    [25] Moghadas SM, Vilches TN, Zhang K, et al. (2021) The Impact of Vaccination on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreaks in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 73: 2257-2264. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab079
    [26] U.S. Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector GeneralMany Factors Hinder ICE's Ability to Maintain Adequate Medical Staffing at Detention Facilities (2021). Available from: https://www.oig.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/assets/2021-11/OIG-22-03-Oct21.pdf.
    [27] Katherine CG, Dana SD, Nadia B, et al. Complaint for violations of civil, constitutional, and disability rights of medically vulnerable individuals at Stewart Detention Center Southern Poverty Law Center (2021). Available from: https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/august_crcl_complaint.pdf.
    [28] U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement4.3 Medical Care | 2019 NDS for Non-Dedicated Facilities (2019). Available from: https://www.ice.gov/doclib/detention-standards/2019/4_3.pdf.
    [29] Dekker A, Farah J, Parmar P, et al. (2023) Emergency Medical Responses at US Immigration and Customs Enforcement Detention Centers in California. JAMA Network Open 6: e2345540. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.45540.
    [30] Appeal from the United States District Court for the Central District of California, Fraihat v. USICE, Case 20-55634United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (2021). Available from: https://cdn.ca9.uscourts.gov/datastore/opinions/2021/10/20/20-55634.pdf.
  • publichealth-11-01-011-s001.pdf
  • Reader Comments
  • © 2024 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
  • 1. 

    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

  1. 本站搜索
  2. 百度学术搜索
  3. 万方数据库搜索
  4. CNKI搜索

Metrics

Article views(887) PDF downloads(59) Cited by(0)

Article outline

Figures and Tables

Tables(3)

/

DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
Return
Return

Catalog