Brief report Special Issues

Relationships between employment status with self-perceived mental and physical health in Canada

  • Received: 22 January 2024 Revised: 22 February 2024 Accepted: 27 February 2024 Published: 29 February 2024
  • Background 

    The annual cost of mental illnesses in Canada is estimated to be $50 billion. Research from other countries have suggested that employment status is associated with mental and physical health. Within the Canadian context, there is a dearth of research on the relationship between employment and mental health.

    Objective 

    To explore the relationships between age, gender, income, and employment status on mental and physical health.

    Methods 

    The 2021 Canadian Digital Health Survey dataset was used for this study. Data records, which included responses for the questions on age, gender, income, employment status, mental, and physical health, were used in the analysis. Ordinal logistics regression was applied to investigate the associations that may exist between mental and physical health with the various sociodemographic factors. Descriptive statistics were also provided for the data.

    Results 

    The total sample size included in the analysis was 10,630. When compared to respondents who had full-time employment, those who were unemployed were more likely to have lower self-perceived mental health (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.55–2.34). Retired respondents were less likely to have worse mental health than respondents who were employed full-time (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68–0.90). Self-perceived physical health was more likely to be lower for those who were unemployed (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.41–2.14) or retired (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.12–1.48) when compared to respondents employed full-time. The likelihood of worsening mental and physical health was also found to be associated with age, gender, and income.

    Conclusion 

    Our findings support the evidence that different factors contribute to worsening mental and physical health. Full-time employment may confer some protective effects or attributes leading to an increased likelihood of having improved mental health compared to those who are unemployed. Understanding the complex relationships on how various factors impact mental health will help better inform policymakers, clinicians, and other stakeholders on how to allocate its limited resources.

    Citation: Anson Kwok Choi Li, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia. Relationships between employment status with self-perceived mental and physical health in Canada[J]. AIMS Public Health, 2024, 11(1): 236-257. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2024012

    Related Papers:

  • Background

    The annual cost of mental illnesses in Canada is estimated to be $50 billion. Research from other countries have suggested that employment status is associated with mental and physical health. Within the Canadian context, there is a dearth of research on the relationship between employment and mental health.

    Objective

    To explore the relationships between age, gender, income, and employment status on mental and physical health.

    Methods

    The 2021 Canadian Digital Health Survey dataset was used for this study. Data records, which included responses for the questions on age, gender, income, employment status, mental, and physical health, were used in the analysis. Ordinal logistics regression was applied to investigate the associations that may exist between mental and physical health with the various sociodemographic factors. Descriptive statistics were also provided for the data.

    Results

    The total sample size included in the analysis was 10,630. When compared to respondents who had full-time employment, those who were unemployed were more likely to have lower self-perceived mental health (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.55–2.34). Retired respondents were less likely to have worse mental health than respondents who were employed full-time (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68–0.90). Self-perceived physical health was more likely to be lower for those who were unemployed (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.41–2.14) or retired (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.12–1.48) when compared to respondents employed full-time. The likelihood of worsening mental and physical health was also found to be associated with age, gender, and income.

    Conclusion

    Our findings support the evidence that different factors contribute to worsening mental and physical health. Full-time employment may confer some protective effects or attributes leading to an increased likelihood of having improved mental health compared to those who are unemployed. Understanding the complex relationships on how various factors impact mental health will help better inform policymakers, clinicians, and other stakeholders on how to allocate its limited resources.



    加载中

    Acknowledgments



    This study is not funded by any agency, and is conducted by the authors independently.

    Conflict of Interest



    Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia is an editorial board member for AIMS Public Health and was not involved in the editorial review or the decision to publish this article All authors declare that there are no competing interests.

    [1] CIHICanadians short on access to care for mental health and substance use. Available from: https://www.cihi.ca/en/taking-the-pulse-a-snapshot-of-canadian-health-care-2023/canadians-short-on-access-to-care-for
    [2] CAMHMental illness and addiction: Facts and statistics. Available from: https://www.camh.ca/en/driving-change/the-crisis-is-real/mental-health-statistics
    [3] Schaare HL, Blöchl M, Kumral D, et al. (2023) Associations between mental health, blood pressure and the development of hypertension. Nat Commun 14: 1953. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-37579-6
    [4] Buchan MC, Romano I, Butler A, et al. (2021) Bi-directional relationships between physical activity and mental health among a large sample of Canadian youth: A sex-stratified analysis of students in the COMPASS study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 18: 132. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-021-01201-z
    [5] Wermelinger Ávila MP, Corrêa JC, Lucchetti ALG, et al. (2022) Relationship between mental health, resilience, and physical activity in older adults: A 2-year longitudinal study. J Aging Phys Act 30: 73-81. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.2020-0264
    [6] Pearson C, Janz T, Ali J Mental and substance use disorders in Canada (2013). Available from: https://www.theneuroethicsblog.com/files/pub/82-624-x/2013001/article/11855-eng.pdf
    [7] Mawani FN, Gilmour H (2010) Validation of self-rated mental health. Health Rep 21: 61-75.
    [8] Nam GE, Eum M-J, Huh Y, et al. (2021) The association between employment status and mental health in young adults: A nationwide population-based study in Korea. J Affect Disord 295: 1184-1189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.100
    [9] Arias-de la Torre J, Molina AJ, Fernández-Villa T, et al. (2019) Mental health, family roles and employment status inside and outside the household in Spain. Gac Sanit 33: 235-241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2017.11.005
    [10] Shields M, Spittal MJ, Aitken Z, et al. (2023) Does employment status mediate the association between disability status and mental health among young adults? Evidence from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Occup Environ Med 80: 498-505. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2023-108853
    [11] Appelhans BM, Gabriel KP, Lange-Maia BS, et al. (2022) Longitudinal associations of mid-life employment status with impaired physical function in the study of women's health across the nation. Ann Epidemiol 74: 15-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2022.06.001
    [12] Chaput J-P, Willumsen J, Bull F, et al. (2020) 2020 WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour for children and adolescents aged 5–17  years: Summary of the evidence. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 17: 141. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01037-z
    [13] Monaghan C, Linden B, Stuart H (2021) Postsecondary mental health policy in Canada: A scoping review of the grey literature. Can J Psychiatry 66: 603-615. https://doi.org/10.1177/0706743720961733
    [14] Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthCAMH, YWHO, ACCESS Open Minds and Foundry launch first-of-its kind initiative to help young people with mental health challenges find employment (2021). Available from: https://www.camh.ca/en/camh-news-and-stories/initiative-to-help-young-people-with-mental-health-challenges-find-employment#:~:text=In%20order%20to%20help%20support,launch%20a%20new%20initiative%20that
    [15] Bridekirk J, Hynie M (2021) The impact of education and employment quality on self-rated mental health among Syrian refugees in Canada. J Immigr Minor Health 23: 290-297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-020-01108-0
    [16] Nowrouzi-Kia B, Gohar B, Sithamparanathan G, et al. (2023) Workplace mental health characteristics of the indigenous workforce in Canada: A descriptive study. Work 74: 129-136. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-210927
    [17] Rueda S, Raboud J, Mustard C, et al. (2011) Employment status is associated with both physical and mental health quality of life in people living with HIV. AIDS Care 23: 435-443. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2010.507952
    [18] Kim I-H, Choi C-C, Urbanoski K, et al. (2021) Is job insecurity worse for mental health than having a part-time job in Canada?. J Prev Med Public Health 54: 110-118. https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.179
    [19] Li L, Lee Y, Lai DWL (2022) Mental health of employed family caregivers in Canada: A Gender-based analysis on the role of workplace support. Int J Aging Hum Dev 95: 470-492. https://doi.org/10.1177/00914150221077948
    [20] Shen Y (2023) Mental health and labor supply: Evidence from Canada. SSM Popul Health 22: 101414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2023.101414
    [21] Canadian Digital Health SurveyUnderstanding Canadians' experiences with digital health (2021). Available from: https://insights.infoway-inforoute.ca/digital-health-survey
    [22] (2020) RStudio TeamRStudio: Integrated Development for R. Boston, MA: RStudio, PBC. URL Available from: https://support.posit.co/hc/en-us/articles/206212048-Citing-RStudio
    [23] Modini M, Joyce S, Mykletun A, et al. (2016) The mental health benefits of employment: Results of a systematic meta-review. Australas Psychiatry 24: 331-336. https://doi.org/10.1177/1039856215618523
    [24] Drake RE, Wallach MA (2020) Employment is a critical mental health intervention. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 29: e178. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796020000906
    [25] van der Noordt M, IJzelenberg H, Droomers M, et al. (2014) Health effects of employment: a systematic review of prospective studies. Occup Environ Med 71: 730-736. https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2013-101891
    [26] Paul KI, Scholl H, Moser K, et al. (2023) Employment status, psychological needs, and mental health: Meta-analytic findings concerning the latent deprivation model. Front Psychol 14: 1017358. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1017358
    [27] Xie L, Shen Y, Wu Y, et al. (2021) The impact of retirement on mental health. Int J Health Plann Manage 36: 1697-1713. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3240
    [28] Sheppard FH, Wallace DC (2018) Women's mental health after retirement. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 56: 37-45. https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20180619-07
    [29] Latif E (2013) The impact of retirement on mental health in Canada. J Ment Health Policy Econ 16: 35-46.
    [30] Calvo E, Sarkisian N, Tamborini CR (2013) Causal effects of retirement timing on subjective physical and emotional health. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 68: 73-84. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbs097
    [31] Szabó Á, Allen J, Stephens C, et al. (2019) Is retirement associated with physical health benefits? A longitudinal investigation with older New Zealanders. Age Ageing 48: 267-272. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afy176
    [32] Pickett KE, Wilkinson RG (2015) Income inequality and health: A causal review. Soc Sci Med 128: 316-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.031
    [33] Thomson RM, Igelström E, Purba AK, et al. (2022) How do income changes impact on mental health and wellbeing for working-age adults? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Public Health 7: e515-e528. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(22)00058-5
    [34] Tibber MS, Walji F, Kirkbride JB, et al. (2022) The association between income inequality and adult mental health at the subnational level-a systematic review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 57: 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-021-02159-w
    [35] Alexiou C, Trachanas E (2021) Health outcomes, income and income inequality: Revisiting the empirical relationship. Forum Health Econ Policy 24: 75-100. https://doi.org/10.1515/fhep-2021-0042
    [36] Bartram M (2019) Income-based inequities in access to mental health services in Canada. Can J Public Health 110: 395-403. https://doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00204-5
    [37] Kiely KM, Brady B, Byles J (2019) Gender, mental health and ageing. Maturitas 129: 76-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2019.09.004
    [38] Robertson L, Akré E-R, Gonzales G (2021) Mental health disparities at the intersections of gender identity, race, and ethnicity. LGBT Health 8: 526-535. https://doi.org/10.1089/lgbt.2020.0429
    [39] Spilsbury S, Wilk P, Taylor C, et al. (2023) Reduction of financial health incentives and changes in physical activity. JAMA Netw Open 6: e2342663. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.42663
    [40] Veenstra G, Vas M, Sutherland DK (2020) Asian-white health inequalities in Canada: Intersections with immigration. J Immigr Minor Health 22: 300-306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-019-00898-2
    [41] Dilmaghani M (2018) Importance of religion or spirituality and mental health in Canada. J Relig Health 57: 120-135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-017-0385-1
    [42] Ghrouz AK, Noohu MM, Dilshad Manzar Md, et al. (2019) Physical activity and sleep quality in relation to mental health among college students. Sleep Breath 23: 627-634. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-019-01780-z
    [43] Canadian Mental Health AssociationBudget 2023 out of touch with mental health crisis (2023). Available from: https://cmha.ca/news/budget-2023-out-of-touch-with-mental-health-crisis/#:~:text=Budget%202023%20fails%20to%20deliver,on%20hospital%20capacity%20and%20resourcing
  • publichealth-11-01-012-s001.pdf
  • Reader Comments
  • © 2024 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
  • 1. 

    沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

  1. 本站搜索
  2. 百度学术搜索
  3. 万方数据库搜索
  4. CNKI搜索

Metrics

Article views(678) PDF downloads(84) Cited by(0)

Article outline

Figures and Tables

Figures(14)  /  Tables(4)

Other Articles By Authors

/

DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint
Return
Return

Catalog