Research article

A path analytic model of health beliefs on the behavioral adoption of breast self-examination

  • Received: 07 November 2020 Accepted: 17 December 2020 Published: 21 December 2020
  • Background

    In Malaysia, breast cancer accounted for 34.1% of all female cancer cases with women presenting breast cancer at late stages. Breast cancer has a higher five-year survival rate if detected early. An increase of approximately 30% in the five-year survival rate is indicated if breast cancer is detected at stage III compared to stage IV. Thus, survival rate of breast cancer can be increased by creating awareness and encouraging breast cancer screening amongst women. Breast self-examination (BSE) is highly recommended for breast cancer screening due to its simplicity with no incurred cost. The Health Belief Model is used in this study to explain and predict the adoptive behavior of BSE amongst women in Kuantan, Pahang.

    Materials and methods

    This study employed a multi-stage sampling method using a simple proportion formula at 5% type 1 error, p < 0.05 and absolute error at 2% which resulted in a sample of 520 participants. The data for the study was obtained using a validated bilingual self-constructed questionnaire and the model constructed using Mplus software.

    Results

    Perceived severity, benefits and barriers were found to significantly influence the behavioral adoption of BSE. Married women aged from 45 to 55 years and knowledge were found to significantly moderate the relationship between perceived benefits and behavioral adoption of BSE. Further, self-efficacy was found as the core construct that mediates the relationship between married women aged 45 to 55 years and the behavioral adoption of BSE.

    Conclusion

    Self-efficacy is found in the study to influence the behavioral adoption of BSE. This is undeniable as self-efficacy can promote confidence in initiating and maintenance of behavioral change if the perceived change is beneficial at an acceptable cost.

    Citation: Soo-Foon Moey, Norfariha Che Mohamed, Bee-Chiu Lim. A path analytic model of health beliefs on the behavioral adoption of breast self-examination[J]. AIMS Public Health, 2021, 8(1): 15-31. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2021002

    Related Papers:

  • Background

    In Malaysia, breast cancer accounted for 34.1% of all female cancer cases with women presenting breast cancer at late stages. Breast cancer has a higher five-year survival rate if detected early. An increase of approximately 30% in the five-year survival rate is indicated if breast cancer is detected at stage III compared to stage IV. Thus, survival rate of breast cancer can be increased by creating awareness and encouraging breast cancer screening amongst women. Breast self-examination (BSE) is highly recommended for breast cancer screening due to its simplicity with no incurred cost. The Health Belief Model is used in this study to explain and predict the adoptive behavior of BSE amongst women in Kuantan, Pahang.

    Materials and methods

    This study employed a multi-stage sampling method using a simple proportion formula at 5% type 1 error, p < 0.05 and absolute error at 2% which resulted in a sample of 520 participants. The data for the study was obtained using a validated bilingual self-constructed questionnaire and the model constructed using Mplus software.

    Results

    Perceived severity, benefits and barriers were found to significantly influence the behavioral adoption of BSE. Married women aged from 45 to 55 years and knowledge were found to significantly moderate the relationship between perceived benefits and behavioral adoption of BSE. Further, self-efficacy was found as the core construct that mediates the relationship between married women aged 45 to 55 years and the behavioral adoption of BSE.

    Conclusion

    Self-efficacy is found in the study to influence the behavioral adoption of BSE. This is undeniable as self-efficacy can promote confidence in initiating and maintenance of behavioral change if the perceived change is beneficial at an acceptable cost.


    Abbreviations

    BSE

    Breast self-examination

    HBM

    Health belief model

    EFA

    Exploratory factor analysis

    SEM

    Structural equation modeling

    加载中

    Acknowledgments



    The authors would like to acknowledge the help rendered by the polyclinics involved in the study. We also wish to thank all participants for voluntarily giving their time in completing the questionnaire. This study is funded by the Fundamental Research Grant (FRGS/1/2017/SKK05/UIAM/02/1), Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), Malaysia.

    Conflict of interest



    All authors declare no conflicts of interest in this paper.

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