Research article Special Issues

Access to sanitary toilets and health outcomes: A panel data analysis using two-way fixed effects model

  • Received: 16 August 2021 Accepted: 08 October 2021 Published: 14 October 2021
  • Based on the data regarding the renovation of the toilets of 30 provinces (municipalities) in rural China from 2005 to 2017, this study utilized a two-way fixed effect model to empirically test the impact of access to sanitary toilets on health, which include intestinal infectious diseases (consisting of hepatitis A, dysentery, and typhoid) and child mortality (consisting of perinatal mortality, infant mortality, and the mortality rate of children under 5). This study attempted to assess the health outcomes of the "toilet revolution" in rural China. The results showed that: (1) Access to sanitary toilets effectively reduced the incidence of hepatitis A and dysentery. For every 1% increase in the rate of access to sanitary toilets, the incidence of hepatitis A was reduced by 5.6%, and the incidence of dysentery was reduced by 36.5%. (2) Access to sanitary toilets does not significantly reduce child mortality. (3) There are obviously regional differences in the impact of access to sanitary toilets on the health outcomes. The renovation of sanitary toilets has shown the most significant effect on reducing the incidence of intestinal infectious diseases in the central region as well as the effect on reducing child mortality in the western region. It is implied that the health outcomes of China's "toilet revolution" may provide supporting evidence and experience for other developing countries and regions in implementing toilet renovation projects.

    Citation: Wanli Zhou, Yingwen Gu, Xiulin Wang. Access to sanitary toilets and health outcomes: A panel data analysis using two-way fixed effects model[J]. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 2021, 18(6): 8815-8830. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2021435

    Related Papers:

  • Based on the data regarding the renovation of the toilets of 30 provinces (municipalities) in rural China from 2005 to 2017, this study utilized a two-way fixed effect model to empirically test the impact of access to sanitary toilets on health, which include intestinal infectious diseases (consisting of hepatitis A, dysentery, and typhoid) and child mortality (consisting of perinatal mortality, infant mortality, and the mortality rate of children under 5). This study attempted to assess the health outcomes of the "toilet revolution" in rural China. The results showed that: (1) Access to sanitary toilets effectively reduced the incidence of hepatitis A and dysentery. For every 1% increase in the rate of access to sanitary toilets, the incidence of hepatitis A was reduced by 5.6%, and the incidence of dysentery was reduced by 36.5%. (2) Access to sanitary toilets does not significantly reduce child mortality. (3) There are obviously regional differences in the impact of access to sanitary toilets on the health outcomes. The renovation of sanitary toilets has shown the most significant effect on reducing the incidence of intestinal infectious diseases in the central region as well as the effect on reducing child mortality in the western region. It is implied that the health outcomes of China's "toilet revolution" may provide supporting evidence and experience for other developing countries and regions in implementing toilet renovation projects.



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