Review Topical Sections

Urinary VPAC1: A potential biomarker in prostate cancer

  • Received: 18 January 2022 Revised: 25 April 2022 Accepted: 10 May 2022 Published: 31 May 2022
  • Prostate cancer is ranked as the fourth most prevalent cancer commonly diagnosed among males over 40 years of age, according to the WHO Cancer Fact Sheet 2020, and it is additionally a leading cause of cancer mortality among males. The incidence of prostate cancer and mortality varied significantly across the globe. Diagnosis of prostate cancer hinders easier management of cases, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) use for screening of prostate cancer has poor specificity and sensitivity, thereby yielding overdiagnosis and unnecessary biopsies. Radiologically guided (ultrasound/MRI) prostate biopsy, considered the gold standard, is invasive and can miss a significant number of metastatic cancers. Even though mild, other prostate biopsy complications occur on a large scale, and few severe ones are often recorded. Scientists intensify their search for biomarker(s) for non-invasive diagnosis of prostate cancer using proteomics, metabolomics, genomics, and bioinformatics—urinary biomarkers were uniquely on the lookout. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (VPAC1), which is overexpressed (a thousandfold) in prostate cancer at the onset of oncogenesis and is excreted in the urine on tumor cells, is a contender in the prostate cancer biomarker quest. VPAC1 is ubiquitous, expressed by normal and malignant cells, and interwoven in their cell membranes. Therefore, using urine samples limits the possibility of making the wrong diagnosis, since VPAC1 is not normally excreted in the urine. Nevertheless, studying transmembrane receptors is intricate. However, producing monoclonal antibodies against the N-terminal end of VPAC1 can provide a promising target for designing a non-invasive diagnostic assay for early detection of prostate cancer using a urine sample.

    Citation: Mansur Aliyu, Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi, Shima Nejati, Behrouz Robat-Jazi. Urinary VPAC1: A potential biomarker in prostate cancer[J]. AIMS Allergy and Immunology, 2022, 6(2): 42-63. doi: 10.3934/Allergy.2022006

    Related Papers:

  • Prostate cancer is ranked as the fourth most prevalent cancer commonly diagnosed among males over 40 years of age, according to the WHO Cancer Fact Sheet 2020, and it is additionally a leading cause of cancer mortality among males. The incidence of prostate cancer and mortality varied significantly across the globe. Diagnosis of prostate cancer hinders easier management of cases, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) use for screening of prostate cancer has poor specificity and sensitivity, thereby yielding overdiagnosis and unnecessary biopsies. Radiologically guided (ultrasound/MRI) prostate biopsy, considered the gold standard, is invasive and can miss a significant number of metastatic cancers. Even though mild, other prostate biopsy complications occur on a large scale, and few severe ones are often recorded. Scientists intensify their search for biomarker(s) for non-invasive diagnosis of prostate cancer using proteomics, metabolomics, genomics, and bioinformatics—urinary biomarkers were uniquely on the lookout. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (VPAC1), which is overexpressed (a thousandfold) in prostate cancer at the onset of oncogenesis and is excreted in the urine on tumor cells, is a contender in the prostate cancer biomarker quest. VPAC1 is ubiquitous, expressed by normal and malignant cells, and interwoven in their cell membranes. Therefore, using urine samples limits the possibility of making the wrong diagnosis, since VPAC1 is not normally excreted in the urine. Nevertheless, studying transmembrane receptors is intricate. However, producing monoclonal antibodies against the N-terminal end of VPAC1 can provide a promising target for designing a non-invasive diagnostic assay for early detection of prostate cancer using a urine sample.


    Abbreviations

    PSA

    prostate-specific antigen

    VIP

    vasoactive intestinal peptide

    PACAP

    pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide

    VPAC1

    VIP/PACAP receptor 1

    ASR

    age-standardized rate

    BPH

    benign prostatic hypertrophy

    DHT

    5α-dihydrotestosterone

    RTqPCR

    quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

    MRI

    magnetic resonance imaging

    mp-MRI

    multiparametric MRI

    DCE-MRI

    dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI

    DWI-MRI

    diffusion-weighted imaging MRI

    TRUS

    trans-rectal ultrasound scan

    ELISA

    enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    PCA3

    prostate cancer antigen 3

    TMPRSS2

    transmembrane protease serine 2

    GSTP1

    glutathione S-transferase P1

    DRE

    digital rectal examination

    AUC

    area under the curve

    aHGF

    hepatocyte growth factor

    IGFBP3

    insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

    OPN

    Plasma osteopontin

    LNCaP

    lymph node carcinoma of the prostate

    GPCRs

    G protein-coupled receptors

    RAMPS

    receptor activity modifying proteins

    7-TMD

    seven-transmembrane domain

    ECD

    extracellular domain

    CHO

    Chinese hamster ovary

    TBP

    TATA-box binding protein

    COX-2

    cyclooxygenase-2

    MMP9

    metalloproteinase 9

    uPA

    urokinase plasminogen activator

    uPAR

    uPA receptor

    DAPI

    4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole

    AC

    adenylyl cyclase

    CREB

    cAMP response element-binding protein

    PKA

    phosphokinase A

    iNOS

    inducible nitric oxide synthase

    CBP

    CREB binding protein

    NF-κβ

    nuclear factor-κβ

    ERK

    extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    MEKK1

    MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) kinase 1

    IRF-1

    IFN regulatory factor-1

    IKK

    inhibitory κβ kinase

    BB-LP

    bombesin-like peptides

    GRPR

    gastrin-releasing peptide receptor

    PLC

    phospholipase C

    DAG

    diacylglycerol

    IP3

    1,4,5-triphosphate

    PKC

    protein kinase C

    MAPK

    mitogen-activated protein kinase

    MAPKK

    mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

    ELK

    ETS like-1 protein

    SRE

    serum response element

    加载中


    Conflicts of interest



    The authors declare no conflict of interest.

    Author contributions



    MA conceived the idea and drafted the manuscript. MA, AASY, SN, and BRJ searched for the literature, while MA and SN wrote the manuscript and drew the diagrams. MA, AASY, SN, and BRJ revised the manuscript critically and approved the final draft. AASY supervised the whole process.

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