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Color image splicing localization algorithm by quaternion fully convolutional networks and superpixel-enhanced pairwise conditional random field

1 Jiangsu Engineering Center of Network Monitoring, School of Computer & Software, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2 Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology (CICAEET), Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3 Key Laboratory of Computer Network Technology of Jiangsu Province, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
4 College of Computer Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
5 Center for Machine Vision and Signal Analysis, University of Oulu, Oulu FI-90014, Finland
6 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark 07102, USA

Special Issues: Security and Privacy Protection for Multimedia Information Processing and communication

Recently, fully convolutional network (FCN) has been successfully used to locate spliced regions in synthesized images. However, all the existing FCN-based algorithms use real-valued FCN to process each channel separately. As a consequence, they fail to capture the inherent correlation between color channels and the integrity of three channels. So, in this paper, quaternion fully convolutional network (QFCN) is proposed to generalize FCN to quaternion domain by replacing real-valued conventional blocks in FCN with quaternion conventional blocks. In addition, a new color image splicing localization algorithm is proposed by combining QFCNs and superpixel (SP)-enhanced pairwise conditional random field (CRF). QFCNs consider three different versions (QFCN32, QFCN16, and QFCN8) with different up-sampling layers. The SP-enhanced pairwise CRF is used to refine the results of QFCNs. Experimental results on three publicly available datasets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms including some conventional algorithms and some deep learning-based algorithms.
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