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Gradient and Hamiltonian coupled systems on undirected networks

1 Centro de Matemática, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
2 Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr Roberto Frias, 4200-464 Porto, Portugal
3 Departamento de Matemática, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
4 Departamento de Matemática, ICMC, Universidade de São Paulo, 13560-970 Caixa Postal 668, São Carlos, SP - Brazil

Special Issues: Mathematical Methods in the Biosciences

Many real world applications are modelled by coupled systems on undirected networks. Two striking classes of such systems are the gradient and the Hamiltonian systems. In fact, within these two classes, coupled systems are admissible only by the undirected networks. For the coupled systems associated with a network, there can be flow-invariant spaces (synchrony subspaces where some subsystems evolve synchronously), whose existence is independent of the systems equations and depends only on the network topology. Moreover, any coupled system on the network, when restricted to such a synchrony subspace, determines a new coupled system associated with a smaller network (quotient). The original network is said to be a lift of the quotient network. In this paper, we characterize the conditions for the coupled systems property of being gradient or Hamiltonian to be preserved by the lift and quotient coupled systems. This characterization is based on determining necessary and sufficient conditions for a quotient (lift) network of an undirected network to be also undirected. We show that the extra gradient or Hamiltonian structure of a coupled system admissible by an undirected network can be lost by the systems admissible by a (directed) quotient network. Conversely, gradient (Hamiltonian) dynamics can appear for an undirected quotient network of a directed network or of an undirected network whose associated dynamics is not gradient (Hamiltonian). We illustrate with a neural network given by two groups of neurons that are mutually coupled through either excitatory or inhibitory synapses, which is modelled by a coupled system exhibiting both gradient and Hamiltonian structures.
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© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

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