Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Fabrication of aluminum microwires through artificial weak spots in a thick film using stress-induced migration

Department of Finemechanics, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-01, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan

With recent advances in technology, micro/nanomaterials have attracted a great deal of attention because of their superior properties compared with the bulk materials. Stress-induced migration (SM) has been used to fabricate micro/nanomaterials because of its advantages of simple processing, mass production, and the possibility of fabricating reactive materials such as aluminum. Stress-induced migration is a physical phenomenon of atomic diffusion driven by compressive stress gradients. When a multilayer structure that includes a passivation layer, a metallic film, and a substrate is heated, hydrostatic thermal stress gradients in the metallic film drive atoms to migrate and discharge through weak spots in the passivation layer. As a result, a large number of nanowhiskers and hillocks grow spontaneously at those locations. However, two problems exist in SM fabrication. First, the position, size, and shape of the growing materials are random because of the randomness of the weak spots. Second, fabricating microwires is difficult because migration of a large number of atoms is needed. In this study, 1-mm-diameter aluminum microwires were successfully grown at intended positions on thick aluminum film by using SM. The thick aluminum film was used to provide a sufficient number of atoms to form microwires. In addition, the positions of the microwires were controlled by introducing artificial weak spots. The parameters that are related to the intentional growth of microwires were investigated, and an optimum condition for growing aluminum microwires was presented.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords microwire; stress-induced migration; thick film; artificial weak spot

Citation: Hsin-Tzu Lee, Yasuhiro Kimura, Masumi Saka. Fabrication of aluminum microwires through artificial weak spots in a thick film using stress-induced migration. AIMS Materials Science, 2018, 5(4): 591-602. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2018.4.591

References

  • 1. Sarkar J, Khan GG, Basumallick A (2007) Nanowires: Properties, applications and synthesis via porous anodic aluminium oxide template. B Mater Sci 30: 271–290.    
  • 2. Tang JF, Tseng ZL, Chen LC, et al. (2016) ZnO nanowalls grown at low-temperature for electron collection in high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 154: 18–22.    
  • 3. McKone JR, Warren EL, Bierman MJ, et al. (2011) Evaluation of Pt, Ni, and Ni–Mo electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution on crystalline Si electrodes. Energ Environ Sci 4: 3573–3583.    
  • 4. Li C, Ji W, Chen J, et al. (2007) Metallic aluminum nanorods: Synthesis via vapor-deposition and applications in Al/air batteries. Chem Mater 19: 5812–5814.    
  • 5. Knight MW, King NS, Liu L, et al. (2014) Aluminum for plasmonics. ACS Nano 8: 834–840.    
  • 6. Ye F, Burns MJ, Naughton MJ (2015) Stress-induced growth of aluminum nanowires with a range of cross-sections. Phys Status Solidi A 212: 566–572.    
  • 7. Lu Y, Tohmyoh H, Saka M (2012) Comparison of stress migration and electromigration in the fabrication of thin Al wires. Thin Solid Films 520: 3448–3452.    
  • 8. Cheng YT, Weiner AM, Wong CA, et al. (2002) Stress-induced growth of bismuth nanowires. Appl Phys Lett 81: 3248–3250.    
  • 9. Settsu N, Saka M, Yamaya F (2008) Fabrication of Cu nanowires at predetermined positions by utilising stress migration. Strain 44: 201–208.    
  • 10. Tohmyoh H, Yasuda M, Saka M (2010) Controlling Ag whisker growth using very thin metallic films. Scripta Mater 63: 289–292.    
  • 11. Saka M, Yasuda M, Tohmyoh H, et al. (2008) Fabrication of Ag micromaterials by utilizing stress-induced migration. 2008 2nd Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference, Greenwich, UK, 507–510.
  • 12. Chen M, Yue Y, Ju Y (2012) Growth of metal and metal oxide nanowires driven by the stress-induced migration. J Appl Phys 111: 104305.    
  • 13. Lu Y, Saka M (2013) Effect of surface film on the Al whisker fabrication by utilizing stress migration. Adv Mater Res 630: 110–113.
  • 14. Herring C (1950) Diffusional viscosity of a polycrystalline solid. J Appl Phys 21: 437–445.    
  • 15. Korhonen MA, Børgesen P, Tu KN, et al. (1993) Stress evolution due to electromigration in confined metal lines. J Appl Phys 73: 3790–3799.    
  • 16. Blachman AG (1971) Stress and resistivity control in sputtered molybdenum films and comparison with sputtered gold. Metall T 2: 699–709.    
  • 17. Saka M, Yamaya F, Tohmyoh H (2007) Rapid and mass growth of stress-induced nanowhiskers on the surfaces of evaporated polycrystalline Cu films. Scripta Mater 56: 1031–1034.    
  • 18. Bower AF (2010) Applied Mechanics of Solids, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 697–698.
  • 19. Mii H, Senoo M, Fujishiro I (1976) Solid solubility of Si in Al under high pressure. Jpn J Appl Phys 15: 777–783.    
  • 20. Sankur H, McCaldin JO, Devaney J (1973) Solid-phase epitaxial growth of Si mesas from Al metallization. Appl Phys Lett 22: 64–66.    

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved