Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

ZnO nanonails for photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet dye under UV irradiation

1 Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Department of Polymer-Nano Science & Technology, Polymer BIN Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea
2 School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Nanomaterials Processing Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekjedaero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea

Topical Section: Nanomaterials, nanoscience and nanotechnology

In this study, nanonails-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were synthesized in large quantity by thermal evaporation technique and further characterized in detail using different techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Morphological characterizations revealed that the as-synthesized nanostructures possess nail-like geometry, grown in large quantity. The XRD, UV-visible absorbance spectra, PL, and Raman spectra confirms good crystallinity and optical property of as-synthesized ZnO nanonails. The photocatalytic activities of designed nanostructures for crystal violet dye (CV-dye) degradation was evaluated under UV illumination and monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy at different time intervals until the dye was completely degraded to colorless end product. A fast decomposition was observed with ~95% degradation rate within the initial 70 min, which is attributed to high specific surface area (56.8 m2/g), high crystallinity and better optical property of ZnO nanonails.
  Article Metrics

Keywords ZnO; nanonails; thermal evaporation; crystal violet; photocatalytic activity

Citation: Nirmalya Tripathy, Rafiq Ahmad, Jeong Eun Song, Hyun Park, Gilson Khang. ZnO nanonails for photocatalytic degradation of crystal violet dye under UV irradiation. AIMS Materials Science, 2017, 4(1): 267-276. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2017.1.267


  • 1. Li S (2010) Removal of crystal violet from aqueous solution by sorption into semi-interpenetrated networks hydrogels constituted of poly(acrylic acid-acrylamide-methacrylate) and amylose. Bioresource Technol 101: 2197–2202.    
  • 2. Singh KP, Gupta S, Singh AK, et al. (2011) Optimizing adsorption of crystal violet dye from water by magnetic nanocomposite using response surface modeling approach. J Hazard Mater 186: 1462–1473.    
  • 3. Jone JJ, Falkinham JO (2003) Decolorization of malachite green and crystal violet by waterborne pathogenic mycobacteria. Antimicrob Agents Ch 47: 2323–2326.    
  • 4. Ghosh D, Bhattacharyya KG (2002) Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite. Appl Clay Sci 20: 295–300.    
  • 5. Chen CY, Kuo JT, Yang HA, et al. (2013) A coupled biological and photocatalysis pretreatment system for the removal of crystal violet from wastewater. Chemosphere 92: 695–701.    
  • 6. Khataee AR, Zarei M (2011) Photocatalysis of a dye solution using immobilized ZnO nanoparticles combined with photoelectrochemical process. Desalination 273: 453–460.    
  • 7. Yao H, Li F, Lutkenhaus J, et al. (2016) High-performance photocatalyst based on nanosized ZnO-reduced graphene oxide hybrid for removal of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. AIMS Mater Sci 3: 1410–1425.    
  • 8. Tripathy N, Ahmad R, Kuk H, et al. (2016) Mesoporous ZnO nanoclusters as an ultra-active photocatalyst. Ceram Int 42: 9519–9526.    
  • 9. Hahn YB, Ahmad R, Tripathy N (2012) Chemical and biological sensors based on metal oxide nanostructures. Chem Commun 48: 10369–10385.    
  • 10. Ahmad R, Tripathy N, Jung DUJ, et al. (2014) Highly sensitive hydrazine chemical sensor based on ZnO nanorods field-effect transistor. Chem Commun 40: 1890–1893.
  • 11. Tripathy N, Ahmad R, Jeong HS, et al. (2012) Time-dependent control of hole-opening degree of porous ZnO hollow microspheres. Inorg Chem 51: 1104–1110.    
  • 12. Ahmad R, Tripathy N, Hahn YB (2013) High-performance cholesterol sensor based on the solution-gated field effect transistor fabricated with ZnO nanorods. Biosens Bioelectron 45: 281–286.    
  • 13. Tripathy N, Ahmad R, Kuk H, et al. (2016) Rapid methyl orange degradation using porous ZnO spheres photocatalyst. J Photoch Photobio B 161: 312–317.    
  • 14. Ahmad R, Tripathy N, Park JH, et al. (2015) A comprehensive biosensor integrated with a ZnO nanorod FET array for selective detection of glucose, cholesterol and urea. Chem Commun 51: 11968–11971.    
  • 15. Tripathy N, Ahmad R, Bang SH, et al. (2016) Outstanding antibiofilm features of quanta-CuO film on glass surface. ACS Appl Mater Inter 8: 15128–15137.    
  • 16. Ramakrishnan R, Devaki SJ, Aashish A, et al. (2016) Nanostructured semiconducting PEDOT-TiO2/ZnO hybrid composites for nanodevice applications. J Phys Chem C 120: 4199–4210.    
  • 17. Khan R, Hassan MS, Cho HS, et al. (2014) Facile low-temperature synthesis of ZnO nanopyramid and its application to photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye under UV irradiation. Mater Lett 133: 224–227.    
  • 18. Tripathy N, Ahmad R, Bang SH, et al. (2014) Tailored lysozyme-ZnO nanoparticle conjugates as nanoantibiotics. Chem Commun 50: 9298–9301.    
  • 19. Zhang X, Qin J, Xue Y, et al. (2013) Effect of aspect ratio and surface defects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods. Sci Rep 4: 4596.
  • 20. Tripathy N, Ahmad R, Ko HA, et al. (2015) Enhanced anticancer potency using an acid-responsive ZnO-incorporated liposomal drug-delivery system. Nanoscale 7: 4088–4096.    
  • 21. Daneshvar N, Salari D, Khataee AR (2004) Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye acid red 14 in water on ZnO as an alternative catalyst to TiO2. J Photoch Photobio A 162: 317–322.    
  • 22. Bachman J, Patterson HH (1999) Photodecomposition of the carbamate pesticide carbofuran:  Kinetics and the influence of dissolved organic matter. Environ Sci Technol 33: 874–881.    
  • 23. Daneshvar N, Rasoulifard MH, Khataee AR, et al. (2007) Removal of C.I. Acid Orange 7 from aqueous solution by UV irradiation in the presence of ZnO nanopowder. J Hazard Mater 143: 95–101.
  • 24. Umar A, Rahman MM, Kim SH, et al. (2008) Zinc oxide nanonail based chemical sensor for hydrazine detection. Chem Commun 166–168.
  • 25. Daud SNHM, Haw C, Chiu W, et al. (2016) ZnO nanonails: Organometallic synthesis, self-assembly and enhanced hydrogen gas production. Mat Sci Semicon Proc 56: 228–237.    
  • 26. Manthina V, Agrios AG (2016) Single-pot ZnO nanostructure synthesis by chemical bath deposition and their applications. Nano-Struct Nano-Object 7: 1–11.
  • 27. Ahmad R, Tripathy N, Khan MY, et al. (2016) Ammonium ion detection in solution using vertically grown ZnO nanorod based field-effect transistor. RSC Adv 6: 54836–54840.    
  • 28. Li L, Yang H, Qi G, et al. (2008) Synthesis and photoluminescence of hollow microspheres constructed with ZnO nanorods by H2 bubble templates. Chem Phys Lett 455: 93–97.    
  • 29. Xu XL, Lau SP, Chen JS, et al. (2001) Polycrystalline ZnO thin films on Si (100) deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc. J Cryst Growth 223: 201–205.    
  • 30. Lv Y, Yu L, Huang H, et al. (2012) Application of the soluble salt-assisted route to scalable synthesis of ZnO nanopowder with repeated photocatalytic activity. Nanotechnology 23: 065402.    
  • 31. Zhang Y, Wu H, Huang X, et al. (2011) Effect of substrate (ZnO) morphology on enzyme immobilization and its catalytic activity. Nanoscale Res Lett 6: 450–456.    
  • 32. Kaneti YV, Zhang Z, Yue J, et al. (2014) Crystal plane-dependent gas-sensing properties of zinc oxide nanostructures: experimental and theoretical studies. Phys Chem Chem Phys 16: 11471–11480.    
  • 33. Sun JH, Dong SY, Wang YK, et al. (2009) Preparation and photocatalytic property of a novel dumbbell-shaped ZnO microcrystal photocatalyst. J Hazard Mater 172: 1520–1526.    
  • 34. Kowsari E (2011) Sonochemically assisted synthesis and application of hollow spheres, hollow prism, and coralline-like ZnO nanophotocatalyst. J Nanopart Res 8: 3363–3376.
  • 35. Lv J, Gong W, Huang K, et al. (2011) Effect of annealing temperature on photocatalytic activity of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method. Superlattice Microst 50: 98–106.    
  • 36. Khan MM, Lee J, Cho MH (2014) Au@TiO2 nanocomposites for the catalytic degradation of methyl orange and methylene blue: An electron relay effect. J Ind Eng Chem 20: 1584–1590.    


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Wenqian Ruan, Jiwei Hu, Jimei Qi, Yu Hou, Rensheng Cao, Xionghui Wei, Removal of Crystal Violet by Using Reduced-Graphene-Oxide-Supported Bimetallic Fe/Ni Nanoparticles (rGO/Fe/Ni): Application of Artificial Intelligence Modeling for the Optimization Process, Materials, 2018, 11, 5, 865, 10.3390/ma11050865
  • 2. Olga Sacco, Mariantonietta Matarangolo, Vincenzo Vaiano, Giovanni Libralato, Marco Guida, Giusy Lofrano, Maurizio Carotenuto, Crystal violet and toxicity removal by adsorption and simultaneous photocatalysis in a continuous flow micro-reactor, Science of The Total Environment, 2018, 644, 430, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.388
  • 3. Alireza Sharafzad, Sajad Tamjidi, Hossein Esmaeili, Calcined lotus leaf as a low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent for removal of methyl violet dye from aqueous media, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 2020, 1, 10.1080/03067319.2020.1711894
  • 4. Puneetha J, Nagaraju Kottam, Nagaraju G, Rathna A, Visible light active ZnO nanostructures prepared by simple co-precipitation method, Photonics and Nanostructures - Fundamentals and Applications, 2020, 39, 100781, 10.1016/j.photonics.2020.100781
  • 5. S.P. Smrithi, Nagaraju Kottam, V. Arpitha, Archna Narula, G.N. Anil Kumar, K.R.V. Subramanian, Tungsten oxide modified with carbon nanodots: Integrating adsorptive and photocatalytic functionalities for water remediation, Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices, 2020, 10.1016/j.jsamd.2020.02.005
  • 6. Ekta Sharma, Vaishali Thakur, Sugandha Sangar, Kulvinder Singh, Recent progress on heterostructures of photocatalysts for environmental remediation, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2020, 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.403

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Nirmalya Tripathy, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved