Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Dietary heavy metal exposure of Finnish 1-year-olds

1 Risk Assessment Unit, Finnish Food Authority, Helsinki, Finland
2 Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare THL, Helsinki, Finland
3 Faculty of Social Sciences/Health Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
4 Research Center for Child Health, Tampere University and University Hospital, and the Science Center of Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland

Topical Sections: Future of food safety and nutrition

The exposure of Finnish 1-year-olds to cadmium, lead and inorganic arsenic via food and drinking water was determined. The food consumption data consisted of 3-day records from 1010 children aged 12 months, collected during 2002 to 2005 in Southwest Finland. One fifth of these children were still breastfed when the consumption data were collected and their exposure was assessed separately from the non-breastfed children. The heavy metal concentration data in foodstuffs were mainly analysis results from national authorities and they were mostly from the years 2005 to 2012. Dietary exposure assessment was performed probabilistically using the online program MCRA. With middle bound estimates, 89% of the non-breastfed and 56% of the breastfed children exceeded the tolerable weekly intake of cadmium. The benchmark dose (BMDL01) for neurological damage caused by lead was exceeded by 60% of the non-breastfed and by 50% of the breastfed children, while the lowest BMDL01 for cancer risk increase caused by inorganic arsenic was exceeded by 77% of the non-breastfed and by 61% of the breastfed children. The assessment did not include the unknown heavy metal exposure from breast milk. Heavy metal exposure differences between the boys and the girls were also assessed. Breastfed girls had significantly higher heavy metal exposure relative to their bodyweight than the breastfed boys, while in the non-breastfed group there were no differences by sex.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2012) Arsenic, Metals, Fibres and Dusts, volume 100, a review of human carcinogens, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon (FR): International Agency for Research on Cancer, Arsenic and arsenic compounds, 41–94.

2. Ni M, Li X, Marreilha dos Santos AP, et al. (2011) Mercury. In: Gupta RC, editor, Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, Academic Press, Chapter 35.

3. European Food Safety Authority, Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) (2009) Scientific opinion on arsenic in food. EFSA J 7:1351–1549.    

4. European Food Safety Authority (2009) Scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the European commission on cadmium in food. EFSA J 980: 1–139.

5. European Food Safety Authority (2011) Scientific opinion statement on tolerable weekly intake for cadmium. EFSA J 9: 1975–1993.

6. European Food Safety Authority, Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) (2010) Scientific opinion on lead in food. EFSA J 8: 1570–1716.    

7. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (2011) Safety evaluation of certain contaminants in food, Rome: WHO Food Additives Series 63, Arsenic (addendum), 153–316.

8. Suomi J, Tuominen P, Niinistö S, et al. (2018) Dietary heavy metal exposure of Finnish children of 3 to 6 years. Food Addit Contam Part A 35: 1305–1315.    

9. Rintala E-M, Ekholm P, Koivisto P, et al. (2014) The intake of inorganic arsenic from long grain rice and rice-based baby food in Finland-low safety margin warrants follow up. Food Chem 150: 199–205.    

10. Venäläinen ER, Hallikainen A, Parmanne R, et al. (2002) Heavy metal contents in Finnish sea and fresh water fish. National Food Agency publications 3/2004, Helsinki: Food Agency, 25.

11. Lodenius M, Soltanpour-Gargari A, Tulisalo E (2002) Cadmium in forest mushrooms after application of wood ash. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 68: 211–216.    

12. Tulonen T, Pihlström M, Arvola L, et al. (2006) Concentrations of heavy metals in food web components of small, boreal lakes. Boreal Env Res 11: 185–194.

13. Zacheus O (2010) Reports on tap water quality in Finland in 2010 (in Finnish). Available from: http://www.valvira.fi/ymparistoterveys/terveydensuojelu/talousvesi.

14. European Food Safety Authority (2012) Cadmium dietary exposure in the European population. EFSA J 10: 2551–2587.    

15. European Food Safety Authority (2012) Lead dietary exposure in the European population. EFSA J 10: 2831–2889.

16. European Food Safety Authority (2014) Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population. EFSA J 12: 3597–3664.

17. Martorell I, Perelló G, Martí-Cid R, et al. (2011) Human exposure to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead from foods in Catalonia, Spain: Temporal trend. Biol Trace Elem Res 142: 309–322.    

18. Kyttälä P, Erkkola M, Kronberg-Kippilä C, et al. (2010) Food consumption and nutrient intake in Finnish 1- to 6-year-old children. Publ Health Nutr 13: 947–956.    

19. Fineli (2016) Finnish food composition database, Release 17, National Institute for Health and Welfare (FI), Nutrition Unit. Available from: www.fineli.fi.

20. Virtanen SM, Nevalainen J, Kronberg-Kippilä C, et al. (2012) Food consumption and advanced β-cell autoimmunity in young children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes: A nested case-control design. Am J Clin Nutr 95: 471–478.    

21. Kantola M, Vartiainen T (2001) Changes in selenium, zinc, copper and cadmium contents in human milk during the time when selenium has been supplemented to fertilizers in Finland. J Trace Elem Med Biol 15: 11–17.    

22. WHO (1989) Minor and trace elements in human milk. Report of a Joint WHO/IEAE Collaborative Study, Geneva, World Health Organization WHO.

23. MCRA (2013) MCRA 8.0 Reference Manual, Report Dec 2013, WUR/Biometris, FERA and RIVM. Available from: https://mcra.rivm.nl.

24. De Boer WJ, van der Voet H, Bokkers BGH, et al. (2009) Comparison of two models for the estimation of usual intake addressing zero consumption and non-normality. Food Addit Contam Part A 26: 1433–1449.    

25. Boon PE, Bonthuis M, van der Voet H, et al. (2011) Comparison of different exposure assessment methods to estimate the long-term dietary exposure to dioxins and ochratoxin A. Food Chem Toxicol 49: 1979–1988.    

26. Suomi J, Tuominen P, Ranta J, et al. (2015) Risk assessment on the dietary heavy metal exposure of Finnish children (In Finnish, with extended summary in English). Helsinki: Finnish Food Safety Authority, Evira Research Reports 2/2015, ISBN 978-952-225-145-9.

27. Oberoi S, Barchowsky A, Wu F (2014) The global burden of disease for skin, lung, and bladder cancer caused by arsenic in food. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 23: 1187–1194.    

28. Serdar MA, Akin BS, Razi C, et al. (2012) The correlation between smoking status of family members and concentrations of toxic trace elements in the hair of children. Biol Trace Elem Res 148: 11–17.    

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved