Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

The physiological and growth response of Petunia hybrida, Tagetes erecta, and Calendula officinalis to plant and human steroids

1 Department of Horticulture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Horticulture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
3 Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

The application of plant hormones has been long considered in the production of the plants, but the use of a whole new set of plant growth regulators including brassinosteroids and human hormones including progesterone and estradiol has been an interesting field of study for plant researchers in recent decades. The present study aimed to explore the effect of plant and animal steroid growth regulators on growth and development of Petunia, Tagetes and Calendula. The first factor was devoted to steroid growth regulators including: No hormone, 1 mg L−1 progesterone, 1 mg L−1 estradiol, 1 mg L−1 24-epibrassinolide, and 1 mg L−1 homobrassinolide. The second factor included three ornamental plant species including Petunia hybrida, Tagetes erecta, and Calendula officinalis. The recorded traits included morphological and biochemical compounds such as catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was found that the highest leaf area, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase level were obtained from the plants treated with estradiol. The application of homobrassinolide had the highest effect of carotenoid and chlorophyll contents. Among the interactions, “24-epibrassinolide × Petunia” resulted in the highest leaf area, “estradiol × Calendula” resulted in highest superoxide dismutase activity, and “estradiol × Petunia” resulted in the highest peroxidase activity. We observed the desirable impact of steroids on the studied traits. Estradiol, homobrassinolide and 24-epibrassinolide improved some traits, but no specific effect was observed for the application of progesterone. According to the results, it is recommended to apply steroid growth regulators to improve the quality and yield of the plants.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Qasemi Gahsareh M, Kafi M (2007) Scientific and applied floriculture, Tehran: Golbol Press.

2. Assar AWA, Echini KM (2011) Alleviation of drought stress of marigold (Tagetes erecta) plants by using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Saudi J Biol Sci 18: 93–98.    

3. Omidbeigi R (2003) Production and processing of medicinal herbs, Mashhad: Astan-e Qods-e Razavi Press.

4. Jones JL, Roddick JG (1988) Steroidal oestrogens and androgens in relation toreproductive development in higher plants. J Plant Physiol 133: 510–518.    

5. Geuns JMC (1978) Steroid hormones and plant growth and development. Phytochemistry 17: 1–14.    

6. Ahmadi Mousavi E, Kalantari M, Torkzadeh M (2005) Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on lipid peroxidation, prolin, sugar and photosynthesis pigments content of rape (Brassica napus L.) under water stress. Iran J Biol 18: 295–306.

7. Janeczko A, Skocczowski A (2005) Mammalian sex hormones in plants. Folia Histochem Cytobiol 43: 71–79.

8. Zhang JS, Yang ZH, Tsao TH (1991) The occurrence of estrogens in relation to reproductive processes in flowering plants. Sex Plant Reprod 4: 193–196.

9. Gendron JM, Wang ZY (2007) Multiple mechanisms modulate brassinosteroid signaling. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:436–441.    

10. Fahimi H (2008) Plant growth regulators , 2Eds., Tehran: Tehran University Press.

11. Arteca RN (2013) Plant growth substances: Principles and applications. Springer Sci Business Media.

12. Bishop GJ, Koncz C (2002) Brassinosteroids and plant steroid hormone signaling. Plant Cell 14: S97–S110.    

13. Simons RG, Grinwich DL (1989) Immunoreactive detection of four mammalian steroids in plants. Can J Bot 67: 288–296.    

14. Milanesi L, Monje P, Boland R (2001) Presence of estrogens and estrogen receptor-likeproteins in Solanum glaucophyllum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 289: 1175–1179.    

15. Kopcewicz J (1969) Effect of estrone on the content of endogenous gibberellins in the dwarf pea. Naturwissenschaften 56: 334.

16. Bhattacharya B, Gupta K (1981) Steroid hormone effects on growth and apical dominance of sunflower. Phytochemistry 20: 989–991.    

17. Sathiyabama M, Bernstein N, Anusuya S (2016) Chitosan elicitation for increased curcumin production and stimulation of defense response in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Ind Crops Prod 89: 87–94.    

18. Gorelick J, Bernstein N (2014) Elicitation: An underutilized tool for the development of medicinal plants as a source for therapeutic secondary metabolites. Adv Agron 124: 201–230.    

19. Moll RH, Kamparth EJ (1977) Effect of population density up on agronomic traits associated with genetic increases in yield of (Zea mays L.). Agron J 69: 81–84.    

20. Mazumdar BC, Majumder K (2003) Methods on physcochemical analysis of fruits. Calcutta: University College of Agriculture. 136–150.

21. Addy SK, Goodman RN (1972) Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in apple leaves inoculated with a virulent or an avirulent strain for Ervinia amylovora. Indian Phytopathol 25: 575–579.

22. Dazy M, Jung V, Ferard J, et al. (2008) Ecological recovery of vegetation on a coke-factory soil: Role of plant antioxidant enzymes and possible implication in site restoration. Chemosphere 74: 57–63.    

23. Das K, Samanta L, Chainy GBN (2000) A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase using nitrite formation by superoxide radicals. Indian J Biochem Biophys 37: 201–204.

24. Lizaso JI, Batchelor WD, Westgate ME (2003) A leaf area model to simulate cultivar-specific expansion and senescence of maize leaves. Field Crops Res 80: 1–17.    

25. Cristofori V, Rouphael Y, Gyves ME, et al. (2007) A simple model for estimating leaf area of hazelnut from linear measurements. Sci Hortic 113: 221–225.    

26. Anjum SA, Wang LC, Farooq M, et al. (2011) Brassinolide application improves the drought tolerancein maize through modulation of enzymaticantioxidants and leaf gas exchange. J Agron Crop Sci 197: 177–185.    

27. Prakash M, Suganthi S, Gokulakrishnan J, et al. (2008) Effect of homobrassinolide on growth, physiology and biochemical aspects of sesame. Karnataka J Agric Sci 20: 110–112.

28. Pasyar R, Saffari V (2014) The effect of 24-epibrassinolide on morphological traits and photosynthesis pigments of Gazania splendens L. Proceedings of the First National Conference of Flowers and Ornamental Plants of Iran, Karaj, Iran.

29. Shabani Soltanmoradi F (2016) A study on the effect of benzyladenine and epibrassinolide on the growth and development of Calendula officinalis L. (M.Sc. Thesis). Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.

30. Bakó E, Deli J, Tóth G (2002) HPLC study on the carotenoid composition of Calendula products. J Biochem Biophys Methods 53: 241–250.    

31. Castenmiller JJM, West CE (1998) Bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids. Annu Rev Nutr 18: 19–38.    

32. Goodwin TW, Britton G, (1988) Distribution and analysis of carotenoids, In: Goodman TW, ed., Plant Pigments, London: Academic Press, 62–132.

33. Khachik F, Steck A, Pfander H (1999) Isolation and structural elucidation of (13Z, 13'Z, 3R, 3'R, 6'R)-lutein from marigold flowers, kale, and human plasma. J Agric Food Chem 47: 455–461.    

34. Fariduddin Q, Yusuf M, Chalkoo S, et al. (2011) 28-homobrassinolide improves growth and photosynthesis in (Cucumis sativus L.) through an enhanced antioxidant system in the presence of chilling stress. Photosynthetica 49: 55–64.

35. Behnamnia M, Kalantariand KM, Rezanejad F (2009) Exogenous application of brassinosteroid alleviates drought-induced oxidative estress in (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Bulg J Plant Physiol 35: 22–34.

36. Sardoei Kara Z, Saffari V, Tavassolian I (2016) Investigation of the response of morphological, physiological and biochemica attributes of marigold to seed priming and 24-epibrassinolide foliar application. Agric Crop Manag 18: 557–567.

37. Hayat S, Maheshwari P, Wani AS, et al. (2012) Comparative effect of 28-homobrassinolide and salicylic acid in the amelioration of NaCl stress in Brassica juncea L. Plant Physiol Biochem 53: 61–68.    

38. Sadeghi F, Shekafandeh A (2014) Effect of 24-epibrassinolide on salinity-induced changes in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl). J Appl Bot Food Qual 87: 182–189.

39. Swamy KN, Rao SSR (2006) Influence of brassinostroids on rooting and growth of geranium (Pelargonium sp.) stem cuttings. Asian J Plant Sci 5: 619–622.    

40. Sarvajeet SG, Narendra T (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in a biotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 3: 1–22.

41. Yuan GF, Jia CG, Li Z, et al. (2010) Effect ofbrassinosteroids on drought resistance andabscisic acid concentration in tomato under waterstress. Sci Hortic 126: 103–108.    

42. Wu Y, Taylor KE, Biswas N, et al. (1999) Kinetic model for removal of phenol by horseradish peroxidase with PEG. J Environ Eng 125: 451–458.    

43. Yamasaki H, Sakihama Y, Ikehara N (1997) Flavonoid-peroxidase reaction as a detoxification mechanism of plant cells against H2O2. Plant Physiol 115: 1405–1412.    

44. Li KR, Wang HH, Han G, et al. (2008) Effects of brassinolide on the survival, growth and drought resistance of Robinia pseudoacaciaseedlings under water-stress. New Forests 35: 255–266.    

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved