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Current insights into the molecular systems pharmacology of lncRNA-miRNA regulatory interactions and implications in cancer translational medicine

Amrita Cancer Discovery Biology Laboratory, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Amritapuri, Clappana P.O., Kollam, Kerala - 690525, India

Special Issues: RNA Epigenomes and Regulatory RNAs

In recent times, the role(s) of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of various cancers has received great attention. Indeed, there is also a growing recognition of regulatory RNA cross-talk, i.e., lncRNA-miRNA interactions, that may modulate various events in carcinogenesis and progression to metastasis. This review summarizes current evidence in the literature of lncRNA-miRNA interactions in various cancers such as breast, liver, stomach, lung, prostate, bladder, colorectal, blood, brain, skin, kidney, cervical, laryngeal, gall bladder, and bone. Further, the potential prognostic and theragnostic clinical applications of lncRNA-miRNA interactions in cancer are discussed along with an overview of noncoding RNA (ncRNA)-based studies that were presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 2015. Interestingly, the last decade has seen tremendous innovation, as well as increase in complexity, of the cancer biological network(s) from mRNA- to miRNA- and lncRNA-based networks. Thus, biological networks devoted to understanding regulatory interactions between these ncRNAs would be the next frontier in better elucidating the contributions of lncRNA-miRNA interactions in cancer. Herein, a cancer biological network of lncRNA-miRNA interactions is presented wherein “edges” connect interacting lncRNA-miRNA pairs, with each ncRNA serving as a discrete “node” of the network. In conclusion, the untapped potential of lncRNA-miRNA interactions in terms of its diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential as targets for clinically actionable intervention as well as biomarker validation in discovery pipelines remains to be explored. Future research will likely harness this potential so as to take us closer to the goal of “precision” and “personalized medicine” which is tailor-made to the unique needs of each cancer patient, and is clearly the way forward going into the future.
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