Research article

Characterization of Vibrio spp. in environmental water samples collected from flood prone areas of Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance profile

  • Received: 06 September 2021 Accepted: 09 November 2021 Published: 19 November 2021
  • Last cholera epidemic has been recorded in Bangladesh between 1992–1993, while few sporadic localized outbreaks have been reported as recent as 2005. Serotype O1 of Vibrio cholera is considered as the principal causative agent which transmits through contaminated drinking water resulting that epidemic. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate V. cholera in 3 different water sources; River, pond and tube-well, in 5 different locations of Gazipur, Bangladesh, and to analyze their antibiogram study. A total of 45 water samples were randomly collected for the isolation and identification of Vibrio spp. Samples are then serially diluted in alkaline peptone water and streak on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose-TCBS agar for quantification of V. spp. For V. cholera isolation water samples were first enriched in nutrient broth at 37 °C for 16 hours followed by cultivation in selective media; TCBS agar at 37 °C for 24 hours. Yellow colonies on TCBS agar were screed as V. cholera and was confirmed by analyzing their biochemical characteristics like Catalase, Oxidase, MR, VP, Indole, Sugar fermentation. Following isolation antibiotic sensitivity test was performed on each V. cholera isolates to determine their antibiotic sensitivity profile. The results showed, out of 45 samples 12 contained V. cholera. Tube-well water has significantly lower concentration (log CFU/mL) of V. spp. than river and pond water (P < 0.05). Bacterial concentration doesn't deviate (P > 0.05) significantly in 5 different location the sample was collected from. All the 12 isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (100%), while Chloramphenicol (91.67%), Sulfamethoxazole (91.67%), Azithromycin (66.67%) showed high sensitivity. Isolates showed marginal sensitivity towards Tetracycline (33.33%), and Cephalexin (16.67%) and 100% resistance against antibiotics like Vancomycin, Penicillin, Erythromycin, and Nalidixic Acid. Based on these data we recommend using tube-well water instead of river and pond water for drinking purposes. Furthermore, we suggest selective use of sensitive antimicrobials listed here for therapeutics of cholera outbreak.

    Citation: Md. Aoulad Hosen, Fozol Korim Ovi, Harunur Rashid, MD. Hasibul Hasan, Md. Abdul Khalek, Mahmudul Hasan, Farhana Easmin, Nazmi Ara Rumi, Mohammad Shariful Islam. Characterization of Vibrio spp. in environmental water samples collected from flood prone areas of Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance profile[J]. AIMS Microbiology, 2021, 7(4): 471-480. doi: 10.3934/microbiol.2021028

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  • Last cholera epidemic has been recorded in Bangladesh between 1992–1993, while few sporadic localized outbreaks have been reported as recent as 2005. Serotype O1 of Vibrio cholera is considered as the principal causative agent which transmits through contaminated drinking water resulting that epidemic. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate V. cholera in 3 different water sources; River, pond and tube-well, in 5 different locations of Gazipur, Bangladesh, and to analyze their antibiogram study. A total of 45 water samples were randomly collected for the isolation and identification of Vibrio spp. Samples are then serially diluted in alkaline peptone water and streak on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose-TCBS agar for quantification of V. spp. For V. cholera isolation water samples were first enriched in nutrient broth at 37 °C for 16 hours followed by cultivation in selective media; TCBS agar at 37 °C for 24 hours. Yellow colonies on TCBS agar were screed as V. cholera and was confirmed by analyzing their biochemical characteristics like Catalase, Oxidase, MR, VP, Indole, Sugar fermentation. Following isolation antibiotic sensitivity test was performed on each V. cholera isolates to determine their antibiotic sensitivity profile. The results showed, out of 45 samples 12 contained V. cholera. Tube-well water has significantly lower concentration (log CFU/mL) of V. spp. than river and pond water (P < 0.05). Bacterial concentration doesn't deviate (P > 0.05) significantly in 5 different location the sample was collected from. All the 12 isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (100%), while Chloramphenicol (91.67%), Sulfamethoxazole (91.67%), Azithromycin (66.67%) showed high sensitivity. Isolates showed marginal sensitivity towards Tetracycline (33.33%), and Cephalexin (16.67%) and 100% resistance against antibiotics like Vancomycin, Penicillin, Erythromycin, and Nalidixic Acid. Based on these data we recommend using tube-well water instead of river and pond water for drinking purposes. Furthermore, we suggest selective use of sensitive antimicrobials listed here for therapeutics of cholera outbreak.



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    Acknowledgments



    Department of Microbiology, Gono Bishwabidalay, Savar, Bangladesh, supported this research project. All authors listed in this paper, was fully involved in the research and they contributed their full efforts, and revised the manuscript before final submission.

    Conflict of interest



    The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

    Author's contribution



    Md. Aoulad Hosen contributed as first author and was responsible for conception, experiment design, data collection and writing of the manuscript. Fozol Korim Ovi contributed in data analysis, statistics, and writing of the manuscript. Farhana Easmin and Nazmi Ara Rumi helps to write manuscript and correction also. Harunur Rashid, and MD. Hasibul Hasan contributed in performing research, data collection and data input for this manuscript. Md. Abdul Khalek, Mahmudul Hasan, Mohammad Shariful Islam had key role in data collection.

    Availability of data and materials



    Hardcopy of raw data used to deduct conclusion on this manuscript are currently available in our inventory and can be provided to the editors any given time when we are asked for it.

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