Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

A multi-stakeholder partnership for the dissemination of alternate wetting and drying water-saving technology for rice farmers in the Philippines

1 University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines
2 International Rice Research Institute, College, Laguna, Philippines
3 Philippine Rice Research Institute, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Special Editions: Elucidating the Specifics of Food Security: Diverse Challenges, Differing Perspectives and Ranges of Solutions

To address issues of water scarcity and food security for sustainable rice farming and increasing production, a water-saving technology called alternate wetting and drying (AWD) was disseminated in the Philippines. This study assessed the impact of facilitating a network of stakeholders on disseminating AWD in irrigated rice systems in the Philippines. It used both qualitative and quantitative data collected from 2002 to 2012 in study sites in the country. Engaging multi-stakeholders in adaptive research, training, and dissemination facilitated the process of more interaction by partners. All partners joined a knowledge and dissemination alliance for scaling out AWD activities. This in turn effected a policy outcome, and the synergetic interactions of each partner within and outside the current network fast-tracked the dissemination process and adoption of AWD by farmers. The AWD practice resulted in an increase in irrigated rice area but not necessarily in rice production and farmers’ income. It also reduced labor and fuel consumption, especially in deep-well irrigation systems.
  Article Metrics


1. McLean J, Hardy B, Hettel G (2013) Rice almanac, 4th edition, Los Baños, Philippines, 283.

2. Voice of America (VOA) Asia-home to half the world's population is graying, 2006. Available from: http://www.voanews.com/content/a-13-2006-07-11-voa23/323006.html.

3. Bouman BAM, Tuong TP (2001) Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigated lowland rice. Agri Water Manag 49: 11-30.    

4. Bouman BAM, Hengsdijk H, Hardy B et al. (2002) Water-wise rice production, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Water-wise Rice Production, Los Baños, Philippines, 356.

5. Wopereis MCS, Kropf MJ, Maligaya AR, et al. (1996) Drought-stress responses of two lowland rice cultivars to soil water status. Field Crops Res 46: 21-39.    

6. Lampayan R, Bouman B, de Dios J, et al. (2004) Adoption of water-saving technologies in rice production in the Philippines. Food Fertil Technol Cent Ext Bull 548: 15.

7. De Dios J (2006) Controlled irrigation: water-saving method in rice production. Nueva Ecija: Philippine Rice Research Institute.

8. Palis FG, Singleton GR, Casimero MC (2010) Strengthening research and extension partnerships for impact: lessons from case studies, In: Palis FG, Singleton GR, Casimero MC, et al. Author, Research to impact: case studies for natural resource management of irrigated rice in Asia, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute, 1-13.

9. Dowling N G, Greenfield S M, Fischer K S (1998) Sustainability of rice in the global food system. Sustainability Rice Glob Food Syst.

10. Glover D, Venot JP, Maat H (2017) On the movement of agricultural technologies: Packaging, unpacking and situated reconfiguration. In, Sumberg J, Andersson J, Thompson J, Agronomy for Development: The politics of knowledge in agricultural research, London: Earthscan.

11. Vanclay, F (2004) Social principles for agricultural extension to assist in the promotion of natural resource management. Aust J Exp Agri 44: 213-222.    

12. Gray, B, Stites, JP (2013) Sustainability through Partnerships: Capitalizing on Collaboration. Network for Business Sustainability.

13. Leeuwis C, Aarts N (2011) Rethinking Communication in Innovation Processes: Creating Space for Change in Complex Systems. J Agri Educ Ext 17: 21-36.    

14. Loorbach D (2007) Transition Management: New Mode of Governance for Sustainable Development. PhD dissertation, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.

15. Van Woerkum CMJ, Aarts MNC, de Grip K (2007) Creativity, Planning and Organizational Change. J Org Change Manag 20: 847-865.    

16. Hall AJ, Yoganand B, Sulaiman RV, et al. (2004) Introduction, In: Hall AJ, Yoganand B, Sulaiman RV, et al., Innovations in innovation: reflections on partnership and learning. India: International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 1-26.

17. Lundvall B (1992) National systems of innovation. Toward a theory of innovation and interactive learning, London: Pinter Publishers.

18. Bandura, A (1977) Social learning theory.

19. Putnam R (1995) Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. J Democracy 6: 65-78.

20. Rejesus RM, Palis FG, Rodriguez D, et al. (2011) Impact of the alternate wetting and drying (AWD) water-saving irrigation technique: evidence from rice producers in the Philippines. Food Policy 36: 280-288.    

21. Valdivia CMD, Sumalde ZM, Palis FG, et al. (2016) Effects of Alternate Wetting and Drying on Rice Farming in Bohol, Philippines. Philippine J Crop Sci 41: 1-7

22. Palis FG, Cenas PA, Bouman BAM, et al. (2004a) Farmer adoption of controlled irrigation in rice: a case study in Canarem, Victoria, Tarlac. Philippine J Crop Sci 29: 3-12

23. Richards M, Sander BO (2014) Alternate wetting and drying in irrigated rice. Ccafs.

24. Lampayan RM, Palis FG, Flor RB, et al. (2009) Adoption and dissemination of "safe alternate wetting and drying" in pump-irrigated rice areas in the Philippines. In: Proceedings of the 60th International Executive Council Meeting and 5th Asian Regional Conference, New Delhi, India.

25. Siopongco JDLC, Wassmann R, Sander BO (2013) Alternate wetting and drying in Philippine rice production: feasibility study for a clean development mechanism. IRRI Technical Bulletin No. 17. Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

26. Palis FG (2017) Integrating indigenous knowledge for technology adoption in agriculture, In Sillitoe P, Indigenous knowledge: Enhancing its contribution to natural resources management, UK: CABI Publishing.

27. TCP2 newsletter, NIA-Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Irrigation Association (IA) Strengthening Support Project, TCP II, 2009. Available from: https://www.jica.go.jp/project/philippines/0702309/pdf/NewsLetter_0901.pdf

28. Sibayan EB, de Dios JL, Lampayan RM (2010a) Outscaling AWD in a public-managed reservoir-type irrigation system: a case study in the Philippines, In: Palis, F.G. et al. Research to impact: case studies for natural resource management for irrigated rice in Asia, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute.

29. Alam MS, Islam MS, Salam MA et al. (2009) Economics of alternate wetting and drying method of irrigation: evidences from farm-level study. The Agri 7: 82-89.

30. Kürschner E, Henschel C, Hildebrandt T, et al. (2010) Water saving in rice production-dissemination, adoption, and short-term impacts of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) in Bangladesh.

31. Cabangon RJ, Tuong TP, Castillo EG, et al. (2004) Effect of irrigation method and N-fertilizer management on rice yield, water productivity and nutrient-use efficiencies in typical lowland rice conditions in China. Paddy Water Environ 2: 195-206.    

32. Moya P, Hong L, Dawe D (2004) The impact of on-farm water saving irrigation techniques on rice productivity and profitability in Zhanghe irrigation system, Hubei, China. Paddy Water Environ 2: 207-215.    

33. Lampayan RM, Sibayan EB, Cabangon RJ, et al. (2013) AWD in Asia: resource conservation, climate change mitigation, and social conflict reduction. Colloid Journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences 33: 473-486.

34. Lampayan RM, Rejesus RM, Bouman BA, et al. (2015) Adoption and economics of alternate wetting and drying water management for irrigated lowland rice. Field Crops Res 170: 95-108.    

35. Rejesus RM, Martin AM, Gypmantasiri P (2014) Enhancing the impact of natural resource management research: Lessons from a meta-impact assessment of the irrigated rice research consortium. Global Food Security 3: 41-48.    

36. Global Food Security, Global Issues on Food Security, 2016. Available from: http://www.foodsecurity.ac.uk/issue/global.html

37. Programme U N E (2003) Global Environment Outlook 3. Past, Present and Future Perspectives. Climate Policy,3: 317-319.

38. Morin SR, Palis FG, Chien HV, et al. (2003) A sociological perspective on the community-based trap-barrier system, Hinds LA, Krebs CJ, Spratt DM Authors, In: Rats, Mice, and People: Rodent Biology and Management, ACIAR Monograph Series: 380-388.

39. Palis FG, Sumalde Z, Hossain M (2004b) Assessment of rodent control projects in Vietnam: adoption and impact. Impact Assessment Series.

40. Deak C, Peredy Z (2015) Policy framework conditions to foster "system innovation" with some illustration from an international perspective. J Innovat Manag 1: 14-24.

41. Sibayan EB, de Dios JL, Lampayan RM (2010b) Policy support in nationwide dissemination of alternate wetting and drying irrigation management in the Philippines. The 3rd International Rice Congress, Hanoi, Vietnam.

42. Rudinas JS, Godilano EC, Ilag AG (2013) Implementing Climate Smart Agriculture Ridge-River-Reef: The Philippine Adaptation and Mitigation Initiative for Agriculture. ASEAN -FAO -GIZ Regional Expert Forum on Climate Change: Agriculture and Food Security in ASEAN. Nai Lert Hotel, Bangkok,

43. Liporada C (1996) Sourcebook on Effective Partnership for Local Governance. Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas (PhilDHRRA) and Philippines-Canada Human Resource Development (PCHRD), Quezon City.

44. Imel S Interagency collaboration: its role in welfare reform,1992. Available from: http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-3/welfare.htm.

45. Atkisson A (2015) Multi-stakeholder partnerships in the post-2015 development era: sharing knowledge and expertise to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals. Background paper for the expert group meeting, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-DESA/DSD), New York.

46. Melaville A, Blank M (1991) What it takes: Structuring interagency partnerships to connect children and families with comprehensive services 57.

47. Biggs S (1990) A multiple source of innovation model of agricultural research and technology promotion. World Dev 18: 1481-1499.    

48. Röling N (1990) The agricultural research-technology transfer interface: a knowledge systems perspective, In: Kaimowitz D, Author, Making the link: agricultural research and technology transfer in developing countries, Boulder: Westview Press, 1-42.

49. Sulaiman VR, Hall AJ (2002) Beyond Technology Dissemination: Reinventing agricultural extension. Outlook Agr, 31: 225-233.    

50. Palis FG, Morin S, Hossain M (2005) Social capital and geography of learning: roles in accelerating the spread of integrated pest management. J Agr Edu Ext 11: 27-37.    

51. Coleman J (2000) Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, In: Dasgupta P, Serageldin I, Editors, Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective, Washington DC: World Bank, 13-39.

52. Schuller T, Baron S, Field J (2000) Social Capital: A Review and Critique, In: Baron S, Field J, Schuller T, editors, Social Capital: Critical Perspective, UK: Oxford University Press, 1-38.

Copyright Info: © 2017, Florencia G. Palis, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved