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Evaluation of dose enhancement with gold nanoparticles in kilovoltage radiotherapy using the new EGS geometry library in Monte Carlo simulation

  • Received: 24 August 2021 Accepted: 08 October 2021 Published: 12 October 2021
  • Purpose

    This study compared the dose enhancement predicted in kilovoltage gold nanoparticle-enhanced radiotherapy using the newly developed EGS lattice and the typical gold-water mixture method in Monte Carlo simulation. This new method considered the gold nanoparticle-added volume consisting of solid nanoparticles instead of a gold-water mixture. In addition, this particle method is more realistic in simulation.

    Methods

    A heterogeneous phantom containing bone and water was irradiated by the 105 and 220 kVp x-ray beams. Gold nanoparticles were added to the tumour volume with concentration varying from 3–40 mg/mL in the phantom. The dose enhancement ratio (DER), defined as the ratio of dose at the tumour with and without adding gold nanoparticles, was calculated by the gold-water mixture and particle method using Monte Carlo simulation for comparison.

    Results

    It is found that the DER was 1.44–4.71 (105 kVp) and 1.27–2.43 (220 kVp) for the gold nanoparticle concentration range of 3–40 mg/mL, when they were calculated by the gold-water mixture method. The DER was slightly larger and equal to 1.47–4.84 (105 kVp) and 1.29–2.5 (220 kVp) for the same concentration range, when the particle method was used. Moreover, the DER predicted by both methods increased with an increase of nanoparticle concentration, and a decrease of x-ray beam energy.

    Conclusion

    The deviation of DER determined by the particle and gold-water mixture method was insignificant when considering the uncertainty in the calculation of DER (2%) in the nanoparticle concentration range of 3–40 mg/mL. It is therefore concluded that the gold-water mixture method could predict the dose enhancement as accurate as the newly developed particle method.

    Citation: Zaynah Sheeraz, James C.L. Chow. Evaluation of dose enhancement with gold nanoparticles in kilovoltage radiotherapy using the new EGS geometry library in Monte Carlo simulation[J]. AIMS Biophysics, 2021, 8(4): 337-345. doi: 10.3934/biophy.2021027

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  • Purpose

    This study compared the dose enhancement predicted in kilovoltage gold nanoparticle-enhanced radiotherapy using the newly developed EGS lattice and the typical gold-water mixture method in Monte Carlo simulation. This new method considered the gold nanoparticle-added volume consisting of solid nanoparticles instead of a gold-water mixture. In addition, this particle method is more realistic in simulation.

    Methods

    A heterogeneous phantom containing bone and water was irradiated by the 105 and 220 kVp x-ray beams. Gold nanoparticles were added to the tumour volume with concentration varying from 3–40 mg/mL in the phantom. The dose enhancement ratio (DER), defined as the ratio of dose at the tumour with and without adding gold nanoparticles, was calculated by the gold-water mixture and particle method using Monte Carlo simulation for comparison.

    Results

    It is found that the DER was 1.44–4.71 (105 kVp) and 1.27–2.43 (220 kVp) for the gold nanoparticle concentration range of 3–40 mg/mL, when they were calculated by the gold-water mixture method. The DER was slightly larger and equal to 1.47–4.84 (105 kVp) and 1.29–2.5 (220 kVp) for the same concentration range, when the particle method was used. Moreover, the DER predicted by both methods increased with an increase of nanoparticle concentration, and a decrease of x-ray beam energy.

    Conclusion

    The deviation of DER determined by the particle and gold-water mixture method was insignificant when considering the uncertainty in the calculation of DER (2%) in the nanoparticle concentration range of 3–40 mg/mL. It is therefore concluded that the gold-water mixture method could predict the dose enhancement as accurate as the newly developed particle method.



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    Acknowledgments



    We would like to thank Rowan Thomson and Martin Martinov from Carleton University, Canada for sharing the EGSnrc egs++ lattice geometry code and guiding us to use it in Monte Carlo simulation. We would also like to thank Xiao Zheng from Ryerson University, Canada for her assistance in Monte Carlo simulation using the gold-water mixture method.

    Conflict of interest



    The authors have no potential conflict of interest on financial or commercial matters associated with this study.

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