Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

The effects of migration on the practice and perception Female Genital Cutting (FGC) among the Horn of Africa’s immigrants in Melbourne Australia

1 Research Scientist, Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm University, Sweden
2 Assistant Professor, University of Houston-Clear Lake, College of Human Sciences and Humanities, Anthropology and Cross-cultural Studies, USA
3 Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, USA

This research examines the effects of migration on the practice and perception of Female Genital Mutilation or Cutting (FGM/C) among Horn of Africa immigrants in Melbourne Australia. According to UN 2016 report, on (FGM/C), there are at least 200 million girls and women alive today globally that have undergone some of form of FGM/C. The same report highlights that most of these practices are concentrated in parts of Africa, Middle East and South Asia. Our research employed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 50 men and women informants and five focus groups among the Horn of Africa immigrants living in Melbourne Australia. Interview and focus group data were analysed using MAXQUDA text analysis software to see emerging themes from the data. Upon the examination of the interviews and focus group data, we found that gender and immigration were the two factors that influenced immigrant’s perception about FGC. Understanding the social and cultural dynamics on the perception of FGC among immigrant communities in the West could help in devising appropriate interventions to tackle FGC in several groups where this practice is commonly occurring.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords Female Genital Cutting; culture; gender; immigration; Horn of Africa

Citation: Sadia Hassanen, Dawit Okubatsion Woldu, Rahma Mkuu. The effects of migration on the practice and perception Female Genital Cutting (FGC) among the Horn of Africa’s immigrants in Melbourne Australia. AIMS Public Health , 2019, 6(1): 67-78. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2019.1.67

References

  • 1. Tomescu IR (2013) International Migration: Security Implications. Res Sci Today 6: 63.
  • 2. Al-Sharmani M (2004) Refugee livelihoods: Livelihood and diasporic identity constructions of Somali refugees in Cairo: UNHCR, Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit.
  • 3. Westin C (1999) Regional analysis of refugee movements: Origins and response, Refugees: Perspectives on the experience of forced migration, 25–45.
  • 4. Hassanen S, Westin C, Olsson E (2013) People on the move: experiences of forced migration with examples from various parts of the world, The Red Sea Press Inc.
  • 5. Flahaux ML, De Haas H (2016) African migration: trends, patterns, drivers. Comp Migr Stud 4: 1.
  • 6. Crisp J (2000) Africa's refugees: patterns, problems and policy challenges. J Contemp African Stud 18: 157–178.    
  • 7. Al-Sharmani M (2004) The American University in Cairo, Forced Migration and Refugee Studies Program (FMRS) Working Paper, Livelihood and diasporic identity constructions of Somali refugees in Cairo.
  • 8. Spiegel PB, Checchi F, Colombo S, et al. (2010) Health-care needs of people affected by conflict: future trends and changing frameworks. Lancet 375: 341–345.    
  • 9. Simich L, Beiser M, Stewart M, et al. (2005) Providing social support for immigrants and refugees in Canada: Challenges and directions. J Immigr Health 7: 259–268.    
  • 10. Gordon JA, Liu X (2015) Bridging home and host country: educational predispositions of Chinese and Indian recent immigrant families. Int J Multicult Educ 17: 21–36.    
  • 11. Grove NJ, Zwi AB (2006) Our health and theirs: forced migration, othering, and public health. Soc Sci Med 62: 1931–1942.    
  • 12. Rabrenovic G (2007) When hate comes to town: Community response to violence against immigrants. Am Behav Sci 51: 349–360.    
  • 13. Organization WH, UNICEF, Association WM (2010) Global strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutiliation.
  • 14. Kandala NB, Ezejimofor MC, Uthman OA, et al. (2018) Secular trends in the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting among girls: a systematic analysis. BMJ Glob Health 3: e000549.    
  • 15. Gele AA, Johansen EB, Sundby J (2012) When female circumcision comes to the West: Attitudes toward the practice among Somali Immigrants in Oslo. BMC Public Health 12: 697.    
  • 16. Organization WH (2012) Understanding and addressing violence against women: intimate partner violence.
  • 17. Suardi E, Mishkin A, Henderson SW (2010) Female genital mutilation in a young refugee: A case report and review. J Child Adolesc Trauma 3: 234–242.    
  • 18. Gruenbaum E (2001) The female circumcision controversy: an anthropological perspective, University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • 19. Hock RR (2007) Human sexuality: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
  • 20. Naughton L, D'Alessio A (2015) Invisible backbone. Community Pract 88: 16.
  • 21. Zurynski Y, Phu A, Sureshkumar P, et al. (2017) Female genital mutilation in children presenting to Australian paediatricians. Arch Dis Child 102: 509–515.    
  • 22. Kaplan-Marcusan A, Torán-Monserrat P, Moreno-Navarro J, et al. (2009) Perception of primary health professionals about female genital mutilation: from healthcare to intercultural competence. BMC Health Serv Res 9: 11.    
  • 23. Ogunsiji OO, Wilkes L, Jackson D (2007) Female genital mutilation: Origin, beliefs, prevalence and implications for health care workers caring for immigrant women in Australia. Contemp Nurse 25: 22–30.    
  • 24. Mabilia M (2013) FGM or FGMo? Cross‐cultural dialogue in an Italian minefield. Anthropol Today 29: 17–21.
  • 25. La Barbera MC (2017) Ban without prosecution, conviction without punishment, and circumcision without cutting: a critical appraisal of anti-FGM laws in Europe. Global Jurist 17.
  • 26. Bernard HR (2012) Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, Sage.
  • 27. Wengraf T (2001) Biographic narrative and semi-structured methods, Qualitative research interviewing, SAGE Research Methods.
  • 28. Boréus K, Bergström G (2012) Textens mening och makt: metodbok i samhällsvetenskaplig text-och diskursanalys, Studentlitteratur.
  • 29. Akinsulure-Smith AM, Chu T (2017) Knowledge and attitudes toward female genital cutting among West African male immigrants in New York City. Health Care Women Int 38: 463–477.    
  • 30. Vogt S, Efferson C, Fehr E (2017) The risk of female genital cutting in Europe: comparing immigrant attitudes toward uncut girls with attitudes in a practicing country. SSM Popul Health 3: 283–293.    
  • 31. Hansen P (2008) Circumcising migration: Gendering return migration among Somalilanders. J Ethnic Migr Stud 34: 1109–1125.    
  • 32. Vissandjée B, Kantiébo M, Levine A, et al. (2003) The cultural context of gender, identity: female genital, excision and infibulation. Health Care Women Int 24: 115–124.    
  • 33. Van Rossem R, Meekers D, Gage AJ (2015) Women's position and attitudes towards female genital mutilation in Egypt: A secondary analysis of the Egypt demographic and health surveys, 1995–2014. BMC Public Health 15: 874.    
  • 34. Organization WH (2008) Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement-OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM.
  • 35. Koukoui S, Hassan G, Guzder J (2017) The mothering experience of women with FGM/C raising 'uncut'daughters, in Ivory Coast and in Canada. Reprod Health 14: 51.    
  • 36. Johansen REB (2017) Undoing female genital cutting: perceptions and experiences of infibulation, defibulation and virginity among Somali and Sudanese migrants in Norway. Cult Health Sex 19: 528–542.    
  • 37. Diaz JA (1993) Choosing integration: a theoretical and empirical study of the immigrant integration in Sweden. Department of Sociology, Uppsala universitet.
  • 38. El Dareer A (1982) Woman, why do you weep? Circumcision and its consequences, London Zed Press.
  • 39. Hondagneu-Sotelo P (1994) Gendered transitions: Mexican experiences of immigration, Univ of California Press.

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved