Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Magnesium: Nutrition and Homoeostasis

Institute for Prevention and Nutrition, Ismaning/Munich, Germany

Special Issues: Magnesium in pregnancy

The essential mineral magnesium is involved in numerous physiological processes. Recommended dietary intake is often not met and a low magnesium status increases the risk for various diseases. Magnesium status is regulated by several magnesium transport systems either in cellular or paracellular pathways. Numerous drugs either interfere with magnesium absorption in the intestines or the reabsorption from primary urine in the kidney. Low magnesium status has been identified as a significant risk factor for several diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arrhythmias, as well as general muscular and neurological problems. Therefore, an adequate magnesium supply would be of special benefit to our overall health.
  Article Metrics

Keywords magnesium; magnesium deficiency; diet; regulation; absorption

Citation: Jürgen Vormann. Magnesium: Nutrition and Homoeostasis. AIMS Public Health , 2016, 3(2): 329-340. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2016.2.329


  • 1. Vormann J. (2003) Magnesium: nutrition and metabolism. Mol Aspects Med 24: 27-37.    
  • 2. de Baaij JH, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. (2015) Magnesium in man: implications for health and disease. Physiol Rev 95: 1-46.    
  • 3. Durlach J. (1988) Magnesium in clinical practice. John Libbey & Co., London, Paris.
  • 4. Weisinger JR, Bellorín-Font E. (1998) Magnesium and phosphorus. Lancet 352: 391-6.    
  • 5. Elin RJ. (2010) Assessment of magnesium status for diagnosis and therapy. Magnes Res 23: 194-8.
  • 6. Birch NJ. (1993) Magnesium and the Cell. Academic Press, London, ISBN 0-12-099620-0.
  • 7. Romani A, Marfella C, Scarpa A. (1993) Cell magnesium transport and homeostasis: role of intracellular compartments. Miner Electrolyte Metab 19: 282-9.
  • 8. Romani A. (2007) Regulation of magnesium homeostasis and transport in mammalian cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 458: 90-102.    
  • 9. Quamme GA. (2010) Molecular identification of ancient and modern mammalian magnesium transporters. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 298: C407-29.    
  • 10. Kolisek M, Nestler A, Vormann J, Schweigel-Röntgen M. (2012) Human gene SLC41A1 encodes for the Na+/Mg²+ exchanger. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 302: C318-26.    
  • 11. Alexander RT, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. (2008) Molecular Determinants of Magnesium Homeostasis: Insights from Human Disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 19: 1451-8.    
  • 12. Sabatier M, Pont F, Arnaud MJ, Turnlund JR. (2003) A compartmental model of magnesium metabolism in healthy men based on two stable isotope tracers. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 285: R656-63.    
  • 13. Rylander R, Remer T, Berkemeyer S, Vormann J. (2006) Acid-base status affects renal magnesium losses in healthy, elderly persons. J Nutr 136: 2374-7.
  • 14. Fine KD, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, Fordtran JS. (1991) Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements. J Clin Invest 88: 396-402.
  • 15. Quamme GA. (2008) Recent developments in intestinal magnesium absorption. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 24: 230-5.
  • 16. Siener R, Hesse A. (1995) Influence of a mixed and a vegetarian diet on urinary magnesium excretion and concentration. Br J Nutr 73:783-90.    
  • 17. Franz KB. (1989) Influence of phosphorus on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium. In: Itokawa Y, Durlach J (eds) Magnesium in Health and Disease. John Libbey & Co., London, pp 71-8.
  • 18. Dimke H, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ. (2010) Hereditary tubular transport disorders: implications for renal handling of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Clin Sci 118: 1-18.    
  • 19. Efrati E, Arsentiev-Rozenfeld J, Zelikovic I. (2005) The human paracellin-1 gene (hPCLN-1): renal epithelial cell-specific expression and regulation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 288: F272-F283.    
  • 20. Schlingmann KP, Weber S, Peters M, et al. (2002) Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia is caused by mutations in TRPM6, a new member of the TRPM gene family. Nat Genet 31: 166-70.    
  • 21. Walder RY, Landau D, Meyer P, et al. (2002) Mutation of TRPM6 causes familial hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia. Nat Genet 31: 171-4.    
  • 22. Aikawa JK. (1981) Magnesium: Its biological significance. CRC Press 89-94.
  • 23. Rude RK. (1998) Magnesium deficiency: a cause of heterogeneous disease in humans. J Bone Miner Res 13: 749-58.    
  • 24. Elin RJ. (1994) Magnesium: the fifth but forgotten electrolyte. Am J Clin Pathol 102: 616-22.    
  • 25. Vormann J, Anke M. (2002) Dietary magnesium: supply, requirements and recommendations––results from duplicate and balance studies in man. J Clin Basic Cardiol 5: 49-53.
  • 26. Institute of Medicine (IOM) (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  • 27. Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) (2003), European Commission, Opinion of the Scientific committee on Food on the revision of refernce values for nutrition labelling, Brussels.
  • 28. D-A-CH Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährungsforschung, Schweizerische Vereinigung für Ernährung; 1. Auflage 2000, ISBN 3-8295-7114-3.
  • 29. King DE, Mainous AG 3rd, Geesey ME, Woolson RF. (2005) Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Nutr 24: 166-71.    
  • 30. Henderson L, Irving K, Gregory J, et al. (2003) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: adults aged 19 to 64 years. Volume 3: Vitamin and Mineral intake and urinary analytes. TSO London.
  • 31. Nationale Verzehrs Studie II. (2008) Max Rubner Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Ernährung und Lebensmittel.
  • 32. Tong GM, Rude RK. (2005) Magnesium deficiency in critical illness. J Intensive Care Med 20: 3-17    
  • 33. Arnaud MJ. (2008) Update on the assessment of magnesium status. Br J Nutr 99 Suppl 3: S24-36.
  • 34. Wilimzig C, Latz R, Vierling W, et al. (1996) Increase in magnesium plasma level after orally administered trimagnesium dicitrate. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 49: 317-23.    
  • 35. Schümann K, Classen HG, Hages M, et al. (1997) Bioavailability of oral vitamins, minerals, and trace elements in perspective. Arzneim-Forsch/Drug Res 47: 369-380.
  • 36. Ismail Y, Ismail AA, Ismail AA. (2010) The underestimated problem of using serum magnesium measurements to exclude magnesium deficiency in adults; a health warning is needed for "normal" results. Clin Chem Lab Med 48: 323-7.
  • 37. Spätling L, Classen HG, Külpmann et al. (2000) Diagnostik des Magnesiummangels. Aktuelle Empfehlungen der Gesellschaft für Magnesium-Mangel e.V. Fortschr Med Orig 118 Suppl 2: 49-53.
  • 38. Whang R, Hampton EM, Whang DD. (1994) Magnesium homeostasis and clinical disorders of magnesium deficiency. Ann Pharmacol 28: 220-6.
  • 39. Rude RK, Singer FR, Gruber HE. (2009) Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr 28: 131-41.    
  • 40. Hartzell HC, White ER. (1989) Effects of Magnesium on Inactivation of the Voltage-gated Calcium Current in Cardiac Myocytes. J Gen Physiol 94: 745-67.
  • 41. Nielsen FH, Milne DB, Klevay LM, et al. (2007) Dietary magnesium deficiency induces heart rhythm changes, impairs glucose tolerance, and decreases serum cholesterol in post menopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 26: 121-32.    
  • 42. Kao WH, Folsom AR, Nieto FJ et al. (1999) Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med 159: 2151-9.    
  • 43. Lopez-Ridaura R, Willett WC, Rimm EB et al. (2004) Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care 27: 134-40.    
  • 44. Song Y, He K, Levitan EB, et al. (2006) Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials. Diabet Med 23: 1050-6.
  • 45. Dong JY, Xun P, He K, Qin LQ. (2011) Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Care 34: 2116-22.    
  • 46. Peacock JM, Ohira T, Post W, et al. (2010) Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Arhterosclerosis Risk in communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J 160: 464-70.    
  • 47. Chiuve SE, Korngold EC, Januzzi JL Jr, et al. (2011) Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr 93: 253-60.    
  • 48. Reffelmann T, Ittermann T, Dörr M, et al. (2011) Low serum magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Atherosclerosis 219: 280-4.    
  • 49. Ford ES. (1999) Serum magnesium and ischemic heart disease: findings from national sample of US adults. Int J Epidemiol 28: 645-51.    
  • 50. Lutsey PL, Alonso A, Michos ED et al. (2014) Serum magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are associated with risk of incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Clin Nutr 100: 756-64.    
  • 51. Qu X, Jin F, Hao Y, et al. (2013) Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One 8: e57720.
  • 52. Del Gobbo LC, Imamura F, Wu JH, et al. (2013) Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 98: 160-73.
  • 53. Guasch-Ferré M, Bulló M, Estruch R, et al. (2014) Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with mortality in adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. J Nutr 144: 55-60.    
  • 54. Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. (2012) Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 95: 362-6.    
  • 55. Rylander R. (2014) Bioavailability of Magnesium Salts – A Review. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences 4, 57-59.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Su Qu, Jiazeng Xia, Jun Yan, Hongliu Wu, Hao Wang, Yi Yi, Xiaonong Zhang, Shaoxiang Zhang, ChangLi Zhao, Yigang Chen, In vivo and in vitro assessment of the biocompatibility and degradation of high-purity Mg anastomotic staples, Journal of Biomaterials Applications, 2017, 088532821769294, 10.1177/0885328217692948
  • 2. Anne Maren Engeloug, Gu Yi, Bjørg Egelandsdal, Anna Haug, Berit Nordvi, Commercial Mineral Enhanced Dairy By-Products as Sodium Replacers, Antioxidants and Calcium Fortifiers in Sausages, Journal of Food Science, 2017, 10.1111/1750-3841.13718
  • 3. Marek Kieliszek, Anna M. Kot, Anna Bzducha-Wróbel, Stanisław BŁażejak, Iwona Gientka, Agnieszka Kurcz, Biotechnological use of Candida yeasts in the food industry: A review, Fungal Biology Reviews, 2017, 10.1016/j.fbr.2017.06.001
  • 4. Forrest H. Nielsen, Dietary Magnesium and Chronic Disease, Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 2018, 25, 3, 230, 10.1053/j.ackd.2017.11.005
  • 5. Yu Meng, Jiantao Sun, Jun Yu, Chunhong Wang, Jianmei Su, Dietary Intakes of Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, and Potassium Elements and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: a Meta-Analysis, Biological Trace Element Research, 2018, 10.1007/s12011-018-1474-z
  • 6. Chen-Yuan Chiu, Hsien-Chun Chiu, Shing-Hwa Liu, Kuo-Cheng Lan, Prenatal developmental toxicity study of strontium citrate in Sprague Dawley rats, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2019, 101, 196, 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.12.003
  • 7. Jürgen Vormann, Tanja Werner, Unterschätzter Risikofaktor vieler Krankheiten – Wie lässt sich ein Magnesiummangel nachweisen?, Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel & Muskuloskelettale Erkrankungen, 2019, 10.1007/s41970-019-0065-6
  • 8. Alexandre Hideo-Kajita, Samuel Wopperer, Vinícius Bocchino Seleme, Marcelo Harada Ribeiro, Carlos M. Campos, The Development of Magnesium-Based Resorbable and Iron-Based Biocorrodible Metal Scaffold Technology and Biomedical Applications in Coronary Artery Disease Patients, Applied Sciences, 2019, 9, 17, 3527, 10.3390/app9173527
  • 9. Luis Humberto Campos Becerra, Marco Antonio Ludovic Hernández Rodríguez, Hugo Esquivel Solís, Raúl Lesso Arroyo, Alejandro Torres Castro, Bio-inspired biomaterial Mg–Zn–Ca: a review of the main mechanical and biological properties of Mg-based alloys, Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express, 2020, 6, 4, 042001, 10.1088/2057-1976/ab9426

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Jürgen Vormann, licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved