Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Stagnant Stunting Rate despite Rapid Economic Growth

—An Analysis of Cross Sectional Survey Data of Undernutrition among Children under Five in Papua New Guinea

World Bank Group, 1818 H. St. NW

Special Issues: Health and Wealth, inequality and health status, public health nutrition: the major challenges to creating a healthier world

 Background: Maternal and child under-nutrition is a pervasive and detrimental condition in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Despite the rapid economic growth during the past decade, the stunting rate for children under 5 has remained at 46 percent in PNG. Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the association between the demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors with undernutrition for children less than five years old in PNG. Data and Method: The study used the 2009–2010 PNG Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES). The final sample included 3057 children under 5 years old. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the odds of stunting, wasting and underweight. Odds ratios were adjusted for independent variables at household and individual levels. Statistical analyses were done with Stata (version 14). Findings: Logistic regression analysis showed household wealth was a significant predictor of stunting: children in the richest wealth quintile were 28.9% (0.711 [0.53–0.95]) less likely to be stunted than were children in the poorest wealth quintile. Other factors also associated with stunting include geographic locations, household head education and incidence of malaria. Similar results were found when wasting and underweight were dependent variables.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords nutrition; child health; economic growth; early child development; Papua New Guinea

Citation: Xiaohui Hou.

Stagnant Stunting Rate despite Rapid Economic Growth

—An Analysis of Cross Sectional Survey Data of Undernutrition among Children under Five in Papua New Guinea

. AIMS Public Health , 2016, 3(1): 25-39. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2016.1.25

References

  • 1. Caulfield LE, Richard SA, Rivera JA, et al. (2006) Stunting, Wasting, and Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., eds. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries 2nd edition Washington (DC): World Bank Chapter 28. Available from: http://wwwncbinlmnihgov/books/NBK11761/
  • 2. Cesar G Victora, Adair L, Caroline Fall, et al. (2008) Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet 371: 340-57.    
  • 3. Van de Poel E, Hosseinpoor AR, Speybroeck N, et al. (2008) Socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 84: 282-91.
  • 4. Van de Poel E, Hosseinpoor AR, Jehu-Appiah C, et al. (2007) Malnutrition and the disproportional burden on the poor: the case of Ghana. Int J Equity Health 6: 21.    
  • 5. UNICEF. (1990) The conceptual framework of malnutrition.
  • 6. Marie T Ruel, Harold Alderman, the Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group. (2013) Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: how can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition? Lancet 382: 536-51.    
  • 7. Vollmer S, Harttgen K, Subramanyam M, et al. (2014) Association between economic growth and early childhood undernutrition: evidence from 121 Demographic and Health Surveys from 36 low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Glob Health; 2: e225-34.    
  • 8. Subramanyam M, Kawachi I, Berkman L, et al. (2011) Is Economic Growth Associated with Reduction in Child Undernutrition in India? PLos Med; 8: e1000424.    
  • 9. Oomen HAPC. Ecology of human nutrition in New Guinea. (1971) Ecol Food Nutr 1971, 1:1 1971; 1.
  • 10. Ferro-Luzzi A, Norgan N, Durnin J. (1975) Food intake, its relationship to body weight and age, and its apparent nutritional adequacy in New Guinean children. Am J Clin Nutr 28: 1443-53.
  • 11. Temple V, Mapira P, Adeniyi K, et al (2004). Iodine deficiency in Papua New Guinea (sub-clinical iodine deficiency and salt iodization in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. J Public Health 27: 45-8.
  • 12. Semba RD, De Pee S, Sun K, Sari M, et al. (2008) Effect of parental formal education on risk of child stunting in Indonesia and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. The Lancet 371(9609): 322-8.
  • 13. Gibson J. (1999) Can women’s education aid economic development? The effect on child stunting in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Econ Bull 14: 71-81.
  • 14. Sharp PT, Harvey P. (1980) Malaria and growth stunting in young children of the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Papua New G Med J 23: 132-40.
  • 15. Senn N, Maraga S, Sie A, et al. (2010) Population Hemoglobin Mean and Anemia Prevalence in Papua New Guinea: New Metrics for Defining Malaria Endemicity? PLoS ONE 5: e9375.    
  • 16. Bauze A, Tran L, Nguyen K-H, et al. (2012) Equity and Geography: The Case of Child Mortality in Papua New Guinea. PloS ONE 7: e37861. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037861.
  • 17. Wand H, Lote N, Semos I, Siba P. Investigating the spatial variations of high prevalences of severe malnutrition among children in Papua New Guinea: results from geoadditive models. BMC Research Notes 2012; 5.
  • 18. Angeles IT, Schultink WJ, Matulessi P, et al. (1993) Decreased rate of stunting among anemic Indonesian preschool children through iron supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 58: 339-42.
  • 19. Gibson RS, Heywood A, Yaman C, et al. (1991) Growth in children from the Wosera subdistrict, Papua New Guinea, in relation to energy and protein intakes and zinc status. Am J Clin Nutr 53: 782-9.
  • 20. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. (2006) WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organ.
  • 21. New Zealand FOOD files 2012 Manual. (2013) Palmerston North: New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited.
  • 22. Scrimshaw NS BM. (1961) Protein malnutrition in young children. Science 133: 2039–47.    
  • 23. McLaren S. (1974) The great protein fiasco. Lancet 2: 93-6.
  • 24. Stephenson K, Amthor R, Mallowa S, et al. (2010) Consuming cassava as a staple food places children 2-5 years old at risk for inadequate protein intake, an observational study in Kenya and Nigeria. Nutr J 9: 1-6.
  • 25. FAO. (2003) Nutrition Country Profiles – PAPUA NEW GUINEA. FAO.
  • 26. Waterlow J. (1972) Classification and definition of protein-calorie malnutrition. BMJ 3: 566-9.    
  • 27. Jamison DT, Leslie J, Musgrove P. (2003) Malnutrition and dietary protein: Evidence from China and from international comparisons. Food Nutr Bull 24.
  • 28. Gibson J, Rozelle S. (1998) Results of the household survey component of the 1996 poverty assessment for Papua New Guinea. Report submitted to the World Bank, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Institute of National Affairs, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
  • 29. Pitt MM, Rosenzweig MR, Hassan NM. (1990) Productivity, Health, and Inequality in the Intrahousehold Distribution of Food in Low-income Countries Am Econ Rev 80: 1139-56.
  • 30. Lagani W, Mokela D, Saweri W, et al. (2010) Papua New Guinea: real progress towards MDG 4 and real challenges. Int Health 2: 186-96.    
  • 31. Kuzma J. (2013) Knowledge, attitude and practice related to infant feeding among women in rural Papua New Guinea: a descriptive, mixed method study. Int Breast J 8: http://doi.org/10.1186/746-4358-8-16.
  • 32. Omot N. (2012) Food security in East Timor, Papua New Guinea and Pacific island countries and territories (ACIAR Technical Report 80). In: Research ACfIA, editor. Canberra, Australia.
  • 33. Englberger L, Lorens A, Pretrick M, et al. (2011) Approaches and Lessons Learned from Promoting Dietary Improvement in Pohnpei, Micronesia. FAO.
  • 34. Christiaensen L, Alderman H. (2004) Child Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Can Maternal Knowledge Augment the Role of Income? Econ Devel Cult Change; 52: 287-312.    
  • 35. World Bank News. (2012) Ethiopia Community-Based Nutrition Program Helps Reduce Child Malnutrition. The World Bank Group. Available from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2012/10/16/ethiopia-community-based-nutrition-program-helps-reduce-child-malnutrition
  • 36. Arimond M, Hawkes C, Ruel MT, et al. (2011) Agricultural Interventions and Nutrition: Lessons from the Past and New Evidence. FAO.
  • 37. Gillespie S, Haddad L. (2001) Attacking the double burden of malnutrition in Asia and the Pacific. Asian Development Bank. IFPRI.
  • 38. FAO, WFP, IFAD. (2012) The state of food insecurity in the world. Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. FAO.
  • 39. Rowland M, Cole T, Whitehead R. (1977) A quantitative study into the role of infection in determining nutritional status in Gambian village children. Brit J Nutr 37: 441-50.    
  • 40. M de Onis, M Blossner, Borghi E. (2011) Prevalence and trends of stunting among pre-school children, 1990–2020. Public Health Nutr 15: 142–8.
  • 41. Lofti M. (1988) Growth monitoring: a brief literature review of current knowledge. Food Nutr Bull 10: 10.

 

This article has been cited by

  • 1. Christopher Alan Birt, Two Major 21st Century Public Health Challenges, AIMS Public Health, 2016, 3, 3, 573, 10.3934/publichealth.2016.3.573
  • 2. Yana van der Meulen Rodgers, Alice Louise Kassens, Women's asset ownership and children's nutritional status: Evidence from Papua New Guinea, Social Science & Medicine, 2018, 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.03.026

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Xiaohui Hou, licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved