Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Phadiatop Seropositivity in Schizophrenia Patients and Controls: A Preliminary Study

1 Mood and Anxiety Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD USA;
2 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX, USA;
3 Johns Hopkins Dermatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology Reference Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD USA;
4 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Psychiatry Residency Training Program, Washington, DC, USA;
5 Department of Psychiatry, University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany;
6 Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA;
7 University of Maryland Child and Adolescent Mental Health Innovations Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Special Issues: Addressing Understudied and Vulnerable Populations and Health Systems

There is a dearth of information on the association of atopy with schizophrenia. The few available studies used population-based registers to classify the atopy status of the patients but this strategy is not reliable. This study measured seropositivity with a multiallergen screen of allergen specific IgE antibodies in schizophrenia patients versus healthy controls. A subset of 66 schizophrenia patients and 34 healthy controls were randomly selected from a large comparative study of schizophrenia patients and controls. The Phadiatop multi-allergen screen was performed on sera from all the participants to assess their atopic status. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for the association of schizophrenia with Phadiatop seropositivity as a measure of atopy. The prevalence of Phadiatop seropositivity was significantly lower (χ2 4.59, p = 0.032) and there was a reduced odds ratio for atopy in schizophrenia patients relative to controls (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.94, p = 0.036). Though limited by a relatively small sample size and potentially confounded by anti-psychotic medications, this study suggests that the prevalence of atopy is lower in patients with schizophrenia. Replicating these results in larger samples could add to our growing understanding of immunological implications in mental illness.
  Article Metrics

Keywords schizophrenia; Phadiatop; atopy; allergen; allergy; IgE; immunology

Citation: Olaoluwa Okusaga, Robert G. Hamilton, Adem Can, Ajirioghene Igbide, Ina Giegling, Annette M. Hartmann, Bettina Konte, Marion Friedl, Gloria M Reeves, Dan Rujescu, Teodor T. Postolache. Phadiatop Seropositivity in Schizophrenia Patients and Controls: A Preliminary Study. AIMS Public Health , 2014, 1(2): 43-50. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2014.2.43


  • 1. Novak N, Bieber T. (2003) Allergic and nonallergic forms of atopic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 112: 252-262.    
  • 2. Strachan DP. (1989) Hay fever, hygiene, and household size. BMJ. 299: 1259-1260.    
  • 3. Raison CL, Lowry CA, Rook GA. (2010) Inflammation, sanitation, and consternation: loss of contact with coevolved, tolerogenic microorganisms and the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 67: 1211-1224.    
  • 4. Schwarz MJ, Müller N, Riedel M, Ackenheil M. (2001) The Th2-hypothesis of schizophrenia: a strategy to identify a subgroup of schizophrenia caused by immune mechanisms. Med Hypotheses. 56: 483-486.    
  • 5. Laursen TM, Munk-Olsen T, Vestergaard M. (2012) Life expectancy and cardiovascular mortality in persons with schizophrenia. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 25: 83-88.    
  • 6. Smith DJ, Langan J, McLean G, Guthrie B, Mercer SW. (2013) Schizophrenia is associated with excess multiple physical-health comorbidities but low levels of recorded cardiovascular disease in primary care: cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 3(4): doi: 10. 1136/bmjopen-2013-002808.
  • 7. Stahl SM, Morrissette DA, Citrome L, et al. (2013) “Meta-guidelines” for the management of patients with schizophrenia. CNS Spectr. 18: 150-162.    
  • 8. Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, et al. (2012) WFSBP Task force on Treatment Guidelines for Schizophrenia. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update 2012 on the long-term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic induced side effects. World J Biol Psychiatry. 14:2-44.
  • 9. Manalai P, Hamilton RG, Langenberg P, et al. (2012) Pollen-specific immunoglobulin E positivity is associated with worsening of depression scores in bipolar disorder patients during high pollen season. Bipolar Disord. 14: 90-98.    
  • 10. Postolache TT, Mortensen PB, Tonelli LH, et al. (2010) Seasonal spring peaks of suicide in victims with and without prior history of hospitalization for mood disorders. J Affect Disord. 121:88-93.    
  • 11. Woo JM, Okusaga O, Postolache TT (2012) Seasonality of suicidal behavior. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 9: 531-547.    
  • 12. Postolache TT, Stiller JW, Herrell R, et al. (2005) Tree pollen peaks are associated with increased nonviolent suicide in women. Mol Psychiatry. 10: 232-235.    
  • 13. Qin P, Waltoft BL, Mortensen PB, Postolache TT. (2013) Suicide risk in relation to air pollen counts: a study based on data from Danish registers. BMJ Open. 3(5): doi:10. 1136/bmjopen-2012-002462.
  • 14. Tonelli LH, Hoshino A, Katz M, Postolache TT. (2008) Acute Stress Promotes Aggressive-Like Behavior in Rats Made Allergic to Tree Pollen. Int J Child Health Hum Dev. 1: 305-312.
  • 15. Tonelli LH, Katz M, Kovacsics CE, et al. (2009) Allergic rhinitis induces anxiety-like behavior and altered social interaction in rodents. Brain Behav Immun. 23: 784-793.    
  • 16. Tonelli LH, Stiller J, Rujescu D, et al. (2008) Elevated cytokine expression in the orbitofrontal cortex of victims of suicide. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 117:198-206.    
  • 17. Weber NS, Cowan DN, Millikan AM, Niebuhr DW. (2009) Psychiatric and general medical conditions comorbid with schizophrenia in the National Hospital Discharge Survey. Psychiatr Serv. 60: 1059-1067.    
  • 18. Chen YH, Lee HC, Lin HC. (2009) Prevalence and risk of atopic disorders among schizophrenia patients: a nationwide population based study. Schizophr Res. 108: 191-196.    
  • 19. Pedersen MS, Benros ME, Agerbo E, Børglum A, Mortensen PB. (2012) Schizophrenia in patients with atopic disorders with particular emphasis on asthma: a Danish population-based study. Schizophr Res. 138: 58-62.    
  • 20. Szefler SJ, Wenzel S, Brown R, et al. (2012) Asthma outcomes: biomarkers. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 129: S9-S23.    
  • 21. First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW. (2002) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Patient Edition. (SCID-I/P), Biometrics Research, New York, USA.
  • 22. Okusaga O, Yolken RH, Langenberg P, et al. (2013) Elevated gliadin antibody levels in individuals with schizophrenia. World J Biol Psychiatry. 14:509-515.    
  • 23. Matsson P, Hamilton RG, Esch RE, et al. (2009) Analytical performance Characteristics and Clinical Utility of immunological assays for human immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody of defined allergen specificities: 2 Eds, Pennsylvania:Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute.
  • 24. Hamilton RG. (2008) Human immunoglobulins in Handbook of Human Immunology, A. D. Donnenberg, M. O'Gorman Eds. , 2Eds, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 63-106.
  • 25. Miller BJ, Buckley P, Seabolt W, Mellor A, Kirkpatrick B. (2011) Meta-analysis of cytokine alterations in schizophrenia: clinical status and antipsychotic effects. Biol Psychiatry. 70:663-671.    
  • 26. Brown AS, Patterson PH. (2011) Maternal infection and schizophrenia: implications for prevention. Schizophr Bull. 37: 284-290.    
  • 27. Yudofsky SC. (2009) Contracting schizophrenia: lessons from the influenza epidemic of 1918–1919. JAMA. 301:
  • 28. Karmaus W, Arshad H, Mattes J. (2001) Does the sibling effect have its origin in utero? Investigating birth order, cord blood immunoglobulin E concentration, and allergic sensitization at age 4 years. Am J Epidemiol. 154: 909-915.
  • 29. Torrey EF, Bartko JJ, Lun ZR, Yolken RH. (2007) Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in patients with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Bull. 33:
  • 30. Fernandes JF, Taketomi EA, Mineo JR, et al. (2010) Antibody and cytokine responses to house dust mite allergens and Toxoplasma gondii antigens in atopic and non-atopic Brazilian subjects. Clin Immunol. 136: 148-156.    
  • 31. Ellertsen LK, Hetland G, Løvik M. (2008) Specific IgE to respiratory allergens and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Streptococcus pneumoniae in Norwegian military recruits. Scand J Immunol. 67: 496-500.    


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Paula Kage, Jan‐Christoph Simon, Regina Treudler, Atopic dermatitis and psychosocial comorbidities, JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 2020, 18, 2, 93, 10.1111/ddg.14029
  • 2. Paula Kage, Jan‐Christoph Simon, Regina Treudler, Atopische Dermatitis und psychosoziale Komorbidität, JDDG: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, 2020, 18, 2, 93, 10.1111/ddg.14029_g
  • 3. E. Vakonaki, K. Tsiminikaki, S. Plaitis, P. Fragkiadaki, D. Tsoukalas, I. Katsikantami, G. Vaki, M. Tzatzarakis, D. Spandidos, A. Tsatsakis, Common mental disorders and association with telomere length (Review), Biomedical Reports, 2018, 10.3892/br.2018.1040
  • 4. Karan Pandher, Keshav Patel, Jordan V Wang, Nazanin Saedi, The other side of atopic dermatitis: An evaluation of psychosocial comorbidities, Clinics in Dermatology, 2020, 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2020.07.002

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2014, Teodor T. Postolache, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved