AIMS Genetics, 2016, 3(4): 205-211. doi: 10.3934/genet.2016.4.205

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Changes in FGFR2 amino-acid residue Asn549 lead to Crouzon and Pfeiffer syndrome with hydrocephalus

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France–Centre de référence des dysostoses craniofaciales
2 Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France
3 Department of Biochemistry and Genetic Biology, Inserm 1132, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France
4 Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hôpital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Lyon, France

Mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor II (FGFR2) have been identified in patients with Crouzon and Pfeiffer syndrome, among which rare mutations of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Correlating subtle phenotypes with each rare mutation is still in progress. In Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, we identified three patients harboring three different pathogenic variants of the same amino acid residue Asn-549 located in this domain: in addition to a very typical crouzonoid appearance, they all developed clinically relevant hydrocephalus, which is an inconstant feature of Crouzon and Pfeiffer syndrome. Overall, FGFR2 tyrosine kinase domain mutations account for 5/67 (7.4%) cases in our hospital. We describe a novel mutation, p.Asn549Ser, and new cases of p.Asn549His and p.Asn549Thr mutations, each reported once before. Our three cases of Asn-549 mutations, alongside with rare previously reported cases, show that these patients are at higher risk of hydrocephalus. Clinical and imaging follow-up, with possible early surgery, may help prevent secondary intellectual disability.
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