Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

A review and future directions on enhancing sustainability benefits across food-energy-water systems: the potential role of biochar-derived products

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Idaho, ID, USA
2 Department of Biological Engineering and Industrial Technology Program, University of Idaho, ID, USA
3 Department of Forest Engineering, Resources, and Management, Oregon State University, OR, USA
4 Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, ID, USA

Special Issues: Global climate change & adaptation

The future of food-energy-water resources is an ever-increasing global concern due to a growing standard of living and population. This study presents opportunities for sustainable growth based on the previous research and developments across food-energy-water systems through biomassbased products (bioproducts), such as biochar, an emerging by-product of biofuel production. Bioproducts are in a nascent stage, but are growing steadily with improvements in production technologies and other cost-reducing strategies. Perspectives on solutions and opportunities that can promote the socio-economic resilience and ecological integrity of regional food-energy-water resources are identified through narrative and systematic literature reviews. These solutions are examined within the context of the environmental and economic parameters that influence stakeholders’ decisions concerning the adoption and use of technological solutions. Biochar has shown to be one of these products with the ability to improve productivity, particularly, in organic farming through increased water-nutrient holding capacity, organic-matter efficiency, and carbon sequestration. Additionally, biochar sorption abilities and textural features have shown to be a special solution for removing a large range of contaminants (e.g., metals and toluene) from water. However, biomass collection, transportation, and conversion costs have been identified as major challenges to produce market-responsive bioproducts. It is concluded that the recent interest in food-energy-water systems has led to research opportunities in bioproducts that can, in turn, bridge the gaps and provide groundbreaking developments for future research and growth. It is also concluded that there is an essential need for solutions-oriented projects across the food-energy-water nexus at both domestic and global level.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords food-energy-water systems; biomass; bioproducts; biochar; sustainability

Citation: Benjamin Hersh, Amin Mirkouei, John Sessions, Behnaz Rezaie, Yaqi You. A review and future directions on enhancing sustainability benefits across food-energy-water systems: the potential role of biochar-derived products. AIMS Environmental Science, 2019, 6(5): 379-416. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2019.5.379

References

  • 1. DOE (2016) Strategic Plan for a Thriving and Sustainable Bioeconomy. 56.
  • 2. Lin L, Xu F, Ge X, et al. (2018) Improving the sustainability of organic waste management practices in the food-energy-water nexus: A comparative review of anaerobic digestion and composting. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 89: 151-167.    
  • 3. Daher B, Mohtar R (2012) Water, energy, and food: The Ultimate Nexus, Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food, and Biological Engineering, Second Edition.
  • 4. Albrecht TR, Crootof A, Scott CA (2018) The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: A systematic review of methods for nexus assessment. Environ Res Lett 13: 043002.    
  • 5. Popp J, Lakner Z, Harangi-Rákos M, et al. (2014) The effect of bioenergy expansion: Food, energy, and environment. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 32: 559-578.    
  • 6. Gomo FF, Macleod C, Rowan J, et al. (2018) Supporting better decisions across the nexus of water, energy and food through earth observation data: \hack\break case of the Zambezi basin. Proc Int Assoc Hydrol Sci 376: 15-23.
  • 7. Belmonte BA, Benjamin MFD, Tan RR (2017) Biochar systems in the water-energy-food nexus: the emerging role of process systems engineering. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng Process Syst Eng 18: 32-37.
  • 8. Hansen S, Mirkouei A (2019) Bio-Oil Upgrading Via Micro-Emulsification And Ultrasound Treatment: Examples For Analysis And Discussion, ASME 2019 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference.
  • 9. Hansen S, Mirkouei A, Diaz LA (2020) A Comprehensive State-of-Technology Review for Upgrading Bio-oil to Renewable or Blended Hydrocarbon Fuels. Renew Sustain Energy Rev in press.
  • 10. Roy P, Dias G (2017) Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in the bioenergy sector: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 77: 59-69.    
  • 11. Mirkouei A, Haapala KR (2015) A network model to optimize upstream and midstream biomass-to-bioenergy supply chain costs, ASME 2015 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC), MSEC2015-9355.
  • 12. Mirkouei A (2016) Techno-Economic Optimization and Environmental Impact Analysis for a Mixed-Mode Upstream and Midstream Forest Biomass to Bio-Products Supply Chain.
  • 13. Cha JS, Park SH, Jung S-C, et al. (2016) Production and utilization of biochar: A review. J Ind Eng Chem 40: 1-15.    
  • 14. Krajačić G, Vujanović M, Duić N, et al. (2018) Integrated approach for sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems. Energy Convers Manag 159: 398-412.    
  • 15. Hugh McLaughlin (2016) An Overview of the current Biochar and Activated Carbon Markets : Biofuels Digest, 2016. Available from: https://www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/2016/10/11/an-overview-of-the-current-biochar-and-activated-carbon-markets/.
  • 16. Mirkouei A (2019) Cyber-Physical Real-time Monitoring and Control for Biomass-based Energy Production, Emerging Frontiers in Industrial and Systems Engineering: Growing Research and Practice, Taylor & Francis.
  • 17. Hansen S, Mirkouei A (2018) Past Infrastructures and Future Machine Intelligence (MI) for Biofuel Production: A Review and MI-Based Framework. ASME 2018 Int Des Eng Tech Conf Comput Inf Eng Conf V004T05A022.
  • 18. Mirkouei A, Kardel K (2017) Enhance Sustainability Benefits Through Scaling-up Bioenergy Production from Terrestrial and Algae Feedstocks, Proceedings of the 2017 ASME IDETC/CIE: 22nd Design for Manufacturing and the Life Cycle Conference.
  • 19. Mirkouei A, Haapala KR, Murthy GS, et al. (2017) Evolutionary Optimization of Bioenergy Supply Chain Cost with Uncertain Forest Biomass Quality and Availability, Proceedings of the 2016 Industrial and Systems Engineering Research Conference H. Yang, Z. Kong, and MD Sarder, eds., May 21-24, Anaheim, California, USA.
  • 20. Mirkouei A, Haapala K (2014) Integration of machine learning and mathematical programming methods into the biomass feedstock supplier selection process, Proc. 24th Int. Conf. Flex. Autom. Intell. Manuf. FAIM May, 20-23.
  • 21. Biggs EM, Bruce E, Boruff B, et al. (2015) Sustainable development and the water-energy-food nexus: A perspective on livelihoods. Environ Sci Policy 54: 389-397.    
  • 22. Wallington K, Cai X (2017) The Food-Energy-Water Nexus: A Framework to Address Sustainable Development in the Tropics. Trop Conserv Sci 10: 1940082917720665.
  • 23. GVR (2017) Biochar Market Size, 2017. Available from: https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/biochar-market-size-worth-31461-million-by-2025-cagr-132-grand-view-research-inc-2018-05-30.
  • 24. Jeffery S, Verheijen FGA, van der Velde M, et al. (2011) A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 144: 175-187.    
  • 25. Atkinson CJ, Fitzgerald JD, Hipps NA (2010) Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: a review. Plant Soil 337: 1-18.    
  • 26. Ahmad M, Rajapaksha AU, Lim JE, et al. (2014) Biochar as a sorbent for contaminant management in soil and water: A review. Chemosphere 99: 19-33.    
  • 27. Liu W-J, Jiang H, Yu H-Q (2015) Development of Biochar-Based Functional Materials: Toward a Sustainable Platform Carbon Material. Chem Rev 115: 12251-12285.    
  • 28. Das O, Sarmah AK, Bhattacharyya D (2015) A sustainable and resilient approach through biochar addition in wood polymer composites. Sci Total Environ 512-513: 326-336.    
  • 29. Carpenter AW, de Lannoy C-F, Wiesner MR (2015) Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies. Environ Sci Technol 49: 5277-5287.    
  • 30. Mousa E, Wang C, Riesbeck J, et al. (2016) Biomass applications in iron and steel industry: An overview of challenges and opportunities. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 65: 1247-1266.    
  • 31. Nemati M, Simard F, Fortin J-P, et al. (2015) Potential Use of Biochar in Growing Media. Soil Sci Soc Am J 14.
  • 32. Berry M, Seppalaomem O (2014) OSUAA_Biochar_MarketStudy_6_6_14.pdf.
  • 33. Delaney M (2015) Northwest Biochar commercialization strategy paper, U.S. Forest Service and the Oregon Department of Forestry.
  • 34. Ferroukhi R, Nagpal D, Alvaro Lopez-Peña, et al. (2015) Renewable Energy in the Water, Energy and Food Nexus, IREA.
  • 35. Jha P, Biswas AK, Lakaria BL, et al. (2010) Biochar in agriculture - prospects and related implications. Curr Sci 99: 1218-1225.
  • 36. Jeffery S, Bezemer TM, Cornelissen G, et al. (2013) The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins. GCB Bioenergy 7: 1-13.
  • 37. Gwenzi W, Musarurwa T, Nyamugafata P, et al. (2014) Adsorption of Zn2+ and Ni2+ in a binary aqueous solution by biosorbents derived from sawdust and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Water Sci Technol 70: 1419.    
  • 38. Yoo G, Kim H, Chen J, et al. (2014) Effects of Biochar Addition on Nitrogen Leaching and Soil Structure following Fertilizer Application to Rice Paddy Soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 78: 852-860.    
  • 39. Bucheli TD, Bachmann HJ, Blum F, et al. (2014) On the heterogeneity of biochar and consequences for its representative sampling. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 107: 25-30.    
  • 40. Gerlach A, Schmidt HP (2014) The use of biochar in cattle farming. Biochar J 2014.
  • 41. Xu R, Ferrante L, Hall K, et al. (2011) Thermal self-sustainability of biochar production by pyrolysis. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 91: 55-66.    
  • 42. Han J, Elgowainy A, Dunn JB, et al. (2013) Life cycle analysis of fuel production from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Bioresour Technol 133: 421-428.    
  • 43. Agegnehu G, Srivastava AK, Bird MI (2017) The role of biochar and biochar-compost in improving soil quality and crop performance: A review. Appl Soil Ecol 119: 156-170.    
  • 44. Biederman LA, Harpole WS (2012) Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta-analysis. GCB Bioenergy 5: 202-214.
  • 45. Agegnehu G, Nelson PN, Bird MI (2016) Crop yield, plant nutrient uptake and soil physicochemical properties under organic soil amendments and nitrogen fertilization on Nitisols. Soil Tillage Res 160: 1-13.    
  • 46. Aldridge CA, Baker BH, Omer AR (2019) Investigation of short-term effects of winter cover crops on compaction and total soil carbon in a long-term no-till agricultural system. J Soil Water Conserv 74: 77-84.    
  • 47. Boateng AA, Mullen CA, Goldberg NM, et al. (2010) Sustainable production of bioenergy and biochar from the straw of high-biomass soybean lines via fast pyrolysis. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 29: 175-183.    
  • 48. Ali I (2014) Water Treatment by Adsorption Columns: Evaluation at Ground Level. Sep Purif Rev 43: 175-205.    
  • 49. Barber ST, Yin J, Draper K, et al. (2018) Closing nutrient cycles with biochar- from filtration to fertilizer. J Clean Prod 197: 1597-1606.    
  • 50. Shackley S, Hammond J, Gaunt J, et al. (2011) The feasibility and costs of biochar deployment in the UK. Carbon Manag 2: 335-356.    
  • 51. Sessions J, Smith D, Trippe KM, et al. (2019) Can biochar link forest restoration with commercial agriculture? Biomass Bioenergy 123: 175-185.    
  • 52. Rosas JG, Gómez N, Cara J, et al. (2015) Assessment of sustainable biochar production for carbon abatement from vineyard residues. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 113: 239-247.    
  • 53. Shackley S, Carter S, Knowles T, et al. (2012) Sustainable gasification-biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part I: Context, chemical properties, environmental and health and safety issues. Energy Policy 42: 49-58.
  • 54. Qin K, Jensen PA, Lin W, et al. (2012) Biomass gasification behavior in an entrained flow reactor: gas product distribution and soot formation. Energy Fuels 26: 5992-6002.    
  • 55. Gwenzi W, Chaukura N, Noubactep C, et al. (2017) Biochar-based water treatment systems as a potential low-cost and sustainable technology for clean water provision. J Environ Manage 197: 732-749.    
  • 56. Zygourakis K (2017) Biochar soil amendments for increased crop yields: How to design a "designer" biochar. AIChE J 63: 5425-5437.    
  • 57. Suter GW (2013) Review papers are important and worth writing. Environ Toxicol Chem 32: 1929-1930.    
  • 58. Mirkouei A, Haapala KR, Sessions J, et al. (2017) A review and future directions in techno-economic modeling and optimization of upstream forest biomass to bio-oil supply chains. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 67: 15-35.    
  • 59. Taticchi P, Garengo P, Nudurupati SS, et al. (2014) A review of decision-support tools and performance measurement and sustainable supply chain management. Int J Prod Res 1-22.
  • 60. WEF (2011) Water Security: the water-food-energy-climate nexus, Island Press.
  • 61. Franz M, Schlitz N, Schumacher KP (2017) Globalization and the water-energy-food nexus - Using the global production networks approach to analyze society-environment relations. Environ Sci Policy.
  • 62. Endo A, Tsurita I, Burnett K, et al. (2017) A review of the current state of research on the water, energy, and food nexus. Water Energy Food Nexus Asia-Pac Reg 11: 20-30.
  • 63. Venghaus S, Hake J-F (2018) Nexus thinking in current EU policies - The interdependencies among food, energy and water resources. Environ Sci Policy.
  • 64. Bazilian M, Rogner H, Howells M, et al. (2011) Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach. Energy Policy 39: 7896-7906.    
  • 65. Leck H, Conway D, Bradshaw M, et al. (2015) Tracing the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Description, Theory and Practice. Geogr Compass 9: 445-460.    
  • 66. Al-Saidi M, Elagib NA (2017) Towards understanding the integrative approach of the water, energy and food nexus. Sci Total Environ 574: 1131-1139.    
  • 67. Bates B, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, et al. (Eds.) (2008) Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, IPCC Secretariat.
  • 68. Alexandratos N, Bruinsma J (2012) World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision. 160.
  • 69. Mateo-Sagasta J, Burke J (2008) Agriculture and water quality interactions: a global overview.
  • 70. Ongley ED (1996) Control of water pollution from agriculture; Chapter 1: Introduction to agricultural water pollution.
  • 71. Wiedmann T (2018) Eutrophication's neglected drivers. Nat Sustain 1: 273-274.    
  • 72. Yue Y, Guo WN, Lin QM, et al. (2016) Improving salt leaching in a simulated saline soil column by three biochars derived from rice straw (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower straw (Helianthus annuus), and cow manure. J Soil Water Conserv 71: 467-475.
  • 73. Bell JM, Schwartz R, McInnes KJ, et al. (2018) Deficit irrigation effects on yield and yield components of grain sorghum. Agric Water Manag 203: 289-296.    
  • 74. Wagner K (2012) Status and trends of irrigated agriculture in Texas. Spec Rep Tex Water Resour Inst Tex AM Univ Coll Stn Tex Tex Water Resour Inst.
  • 75. Bordovsky JP, Mustian JT, Cranmer AM, et al. (2011) Cotton-grain sorghum rotation under extreme deficit irrigation conditions. Appl Eng Agric 27: 359-371.    
  • 76. Grafton RQ, Williams J, Perry CJ, et al. (2018) The paradox of irrigation efficiency. Science 361: 748-750.    
  • 77. Vadez V, Kholová J, Yadav RS, et al. (2013) Small temporal differences in water uptake among varieties of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) are critical for grain yield under terminal drought. Plant Soil 371: 447-462.
  • 78. Compton M, Willis S, Rezaie B, et al. (2018) Food processing industry energy and water consumption in the Pacific northwest. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 47: 371-383.    
  • 79. Ralph E. H. Sims (2011) Energy-Smart Food for People and Climate. UN Food and Agriculture Organisation.
  • 80. FAO (2018) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2018.Available from: http://www.fao.org/home/en/.
  • 81. Reganold JP, Wachter JM (2016) Organic agriculture in the twenty-first century. Nat Plants 2: 15221.    
  • 82. Dong X, Vuran MC, Irmak S (2013) Autonomous precision agriculture through integration of wireless underground sensor networks with center pivot irrigation systems. Ad Hoc Netw 11: 1975-1987.    
  • 83. Helu M, Hedberg T, Barnard Feeney A (2017) Reference architecture to integrate heterogeneous manufacturing systems for the digital thread. CIRP J Manuf Sci Technol.
  • 84. Vogl GW, Weiss BA, Helu M (2016) A review of diagnostic and prognostic capabilities and best practices for manufacturing. J Intell Manuf 1-17.
  • 85. Wolfe ML, Ting KC, Scott N, et al. (2016) Engineering solutions for food-energy-water systems: it is more than engineering. J Environ Stud Sci 6: 172-182.    
  • 86. Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M (2006) Bio-char Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems - A Review. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 11: 403-427.    
  • 87. Napolitano G, Isaac J, Bizzarri G, et al. (2010) Bioenergy and Food Security. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • 88. Khan Z, Linares P, García-González J (2017) Integrating water and energy models for policy driven applications. A review of contemporary work and recommendations for future developments. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 67: 1123-1138.
  • 89. Pate R, Hightower M, Cameron C, et al. (2007) Overview of Energy-Water Interdependencies and the emerging energy demands on Water Resources.
  • 90. Scott CA, Pierce SA, Pasqualetti MJ, et al. (2011) Policy and institutional dimensions of the water-energy nexus. Sustain Biofuels 39: 6622-6630.
  • 91. Hamiche AM, Stambouli AB, Flazi S (2016) A review of the water-energy nexus. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 65: 319-331.    
  • 92. Erik Mielke, Laura Diaz Anadon, Vankatesh Narayanamurti (2010) Water Consumption of Energy Resource Extraction, Processing, and Conversion, A review of the literature for estimates of water intensity of energy-resource extraction, processing to fuels,and conversion to electricity, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University.
  • 93. Bartos MD, Chester MV (2014) The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Arizona. Environ Sci Technol 48: 2139-2149.    
  • 94. Wu M, Mintz M, Wang M, et al. (2009) Water Consumption in the Production of Ethanol and Petroleum Gasoline. Environ Manage 44: 981.    
  • 95. Ernst KM, Preston BL (2017) Adaptation opportunities and constraints in coupled systems: Evidence from the U.S. energy-water nexus. Environ Sci Policy 70: 38-45.
  • 96. Liu J, Hull V, Godfray HCJ, et al. (2018) Nexus approaches to global sustainable development. Nat Sustain 1: 466.    
  • 97. Jägerskog A, Lindström A, Björklund G, et al. (2012) Regional Options for Addressing the Water, Energy and Food Nexus in Central Asia and the Aral Sea Basin AU - Granit, Jakob. Int J Water Resour Dev 28: 419-432.    
  • 98. Villarroel Walker R, Beck MB, Hall JW (2012) Water - and nutrient and energy - systems in urbanizing watersheds. Front Environ Sci Eng 6: 596-611.    
  • 99. Siddiqi A, Anadon LD (2011) The water-energy nexus in Middle East and North Africa. Crossroads Pathw Renew Nucl Energy Policy North Afr 39: 4529-4540.
  • 100. Ringler C, Bhaduri A, Lawford R (2013) The nexus across water, energy, land and food (WELF): potential for improved resource use efficiency? Aquat Mar Syst 5: 617-624.
  • 101. Lawford R, Bogardi J, Marx S, et al. (2013) Basin perspectives on the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus. Aquat Mar Syst 5: 607-616.
  • 102. Rasul G (2014) Food, water, and energy security in South Asia: A nexus perspective from the Hindu Kush Himalayan region☆. Environ Sci Policy 39: 35-48.    
  • 103. Stein C, Barron J, Nigussie L, et al. (2014) Advancing the water-energy-food nexus: social networks and institutional interplay in the Blue Nile, International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program.
  • 104. Villarroel R, Beck MB, Hall JW, et al. (2014) The energy-water-food nexus: Strategic analysis of technologies for transforming the urban metabolism. J Environ Manage 141: 104-115.    
  • 105. Biggs EM, Bruce E, Boruff B, et al. (2015) Sustainable development and the water-energy-food nexus: A perspective on livelihoods. Environ Sci Policy 54: 389-397.    
  • 106. Conway D, van Garderen EA, Deryng D, et al. (2015) Climate and southern Africa's water-energy-food nexus. Nat Clim Change 5: 837.    
  • 107. Daher BT, Mohtar RH (2015) Water-energy-food (WEF) Nexus Tool 2.0: guiding integrative resource planning and decision-making. Water Int 40: 748-771.
  • 108. Jeswani HK, Burkinshaw R, Azapagic A (2015) Environmental sustainability issues in the food-energy-water nexus: Breakfast cereals and snacks. Sustain Prod Consum 2: 17-28.    
  • 109. Kraucunas I, Clarke L, Dirks J, et al. (2015) Investigating the nexus of climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant scales: the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA). Clim Change 129: 573-588.    
  • 110. Mukuve FM, Fenner RA (2015) Scale variability of water, land, and energy resource interactions and their influence on the food system in Uganda. Sustain Prod Consum 2: 79-95.    
  • 111. Ozturk I (2015) Sustainability in the food-energy-water nexus: Evidence from BRICS (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China, and South Africa) countries. Energy 93: 999-1010.    
  • 112. Endo A, Burnett K, Orencio P, et al. (2015) Methods of the water-energy-food nexus. Water 7: 5806-5830.    
  • 113. Middleton C, Allouche J, Gyawali D, et al. (2015) The Rise and Implications of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Southeast Asia through an Environmental Justice Lens.
  • 114. Villamayor-Tomas S, Grundmann P, Epstein G, et al. (2015) The Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus through the Lenses of the Value Chain and the Institutional Analysis and Development Frameworks. 8: 21.
  • 115. Keskinen M, Someth P, Salmivaara A, et al. (2015) Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin.
  • 116. Garcia DJ, You F (2016) The water-energy-food nexus and process systems engineering: A new focus. 12th Int Symp Process Syst Eng 25th Eur Symp Comput Aided Process Eng PSE-2015ESCAPE-25 31 May - 4 June 2015 Cph Den 91: 49-67.
  • 117. Rasul G (2016) Managing the food, water, and energy nexus for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in South Asia. Environ Dev 18: 14-25.    
  • 118. De Laurentiis V, Hunt D, Rogers C (2016) Overcoming food security challenges within an energy/water/food nexus (EWFN) approach. Sustainability 8: 95.    
  • 119. Cairns R, Krzywoszynska A (2016) Anatomy of a buzzword: The emergence of 'the water-energy-food nexus' in UK natural resource debates. Environ Sci Policy 64: 164-170.    
  • 120. Yang YE, Wi S, Ray PA, et al. (2016) The future nexus of the Brahmaputra River Basin: climate, water, energy and food trajectories. Glob Environ Change 37: 16-30.    
  • 121. de Strasser L, Lipponen A, Howells M, et al. (2016) A methodology to assess the water energy food ecosystems nexus in transboundary river basins. Water 8: 59.    
  • 122. Fasel M, Bréthaut C, Rouholahnejad E, et al. (2016) Blue water scarcity in the Black Sea catchment: Identifying key actors in the water-ecosystem-energy-food nexus. Environ Sci Policy 66: 140-150.    
  • 123. Perrone D, Hornberger G (2016) Frontiers of the food-energy-water trilemma: Sri Lanka as a microcosm of tradeoffs. Environ Res Lett 11: 014005.    
  • 124. Mortensen JG, González-Pinzón R, Dahm CN, et al. (2016) Advancing the Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Closing Nutrient Loops in Arid River Corridors. Environ Sci Technol 50: 8485-8496.    
  • 125. Wichelns D (2017) The water-energy-food nexus: Is the increasing attention warranted, from either a research or policy perspective? Environ Sci Policy 69: 113-123.    
  • 126. Endo A, Tsurita I, Burnett K, et al. (2017) A review of the current state of research on the water, energy, and food nexus. Water Energy Food Nexus Asia-Pac Reg 11: 20-30.
  • 127. Howarth C, Monasterolo I (2017) Opportunities for knowledge co-production across the energy-food-water nexus: Making interdisciplinary approaches work for better climate decision making. Environ Sci Policy 75: 103-110.    
  • 128. Flammini A, Puri M, Pluschke L, et al. (2014) Walking the nexus talk: assessing the water-energy-food nexus in the context of the sustainable energy for all initiative, Rome, Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
  • 129. Pahl-Wostl C (2019) Governance of the water-energy-food security nexus: A multi-level coordination challenge. Environ Sci Policy 92: 356-367.    
  • 130. El Gafy I, Grigg N, Reagan W (2017) Dynamic Behaviour of the Water-Food-Energy Nexus: Focus on Crop Production and Consumption. Irrig Drain 66: 19-33.    
  • 131. Wicaksono A, Jeong G, Kang D (2017) Water, energy, and food nexus: Review of global implementation and simulation model development.
  • 132. Dhaubanjar S, Davidsen C, Bauer-Gottwein P (2017) Multi-Objective Optimization for Analysis of Changing Trade-Offs in the Nepalese Water-Energy-Food Nexus with Hydropower Development. Water 9.
  • 133. Hussien WA, Memon FA, Savic DA (2017) An integrated model to evaluate water-energy-food nexus at a household scale. Environ Model Softw 93: 366-380.    
  • 134. Johnson OW, Karlberg L (2017) Co-exploring the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Facilitating Dialogue through Participatory Scenario Building. Front Environ Sci 5: 24.    
  • 135. White DJ, Hubacek K, Feng K, et al. (2018) The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in East Asia: A tele-connected value chain analysis using inter-regional input-output analysis. Appl Energy 210: 550-567.    
  • 136. Albrecht TR, Crootof A, Scott CA (2018) The water-energy-food nexus: A comprehensive review of nexus-specific methods. Environ Res Lett.
  • 137. Siddiqi A, Anadon LD (2011) The water-energy nexus in Middle East and North Africa. Crossroads Pathw Renew Nucl Energy Policy North Afr 39: 4529-4540.
  • 138. Villarroel Walker R, Beck MB, Hall JW (2012) Water - and nutrient and energy - systems in urbanizing watersheds. Front Environ Sci Eng 6: 596-611.    
  • 139. Ringler C, Bhaduri A, Lawford R (2013) The nexus across water, energy, land and food (WELF): potential for improved resource use efficiency? Aquat Mar Syst 5: 617-624.
  • 140. Rasul G (2016) Managing the food, water, and energy nexus for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in South Asia. Environ Dev 18: 14-25.    
  • 141. Wichelns D (2017) The water-energy-food nexus: Is the increasing attention warranted, from either a research or policy perspective? Environ Sci Policy 69: 113-123.    
  • 142. White DJ, Hubacek K, Feng K, et al. (2018) The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in East Asia: A tele-connected value chain analysis using inter-regional input-output analysis. Appl Energy 210: 550-567.    
  • 143. Qambrani NA, Rahman MdM, Won S, et al. (2017) Biochar properties and eco-friendly applications for climate change mitigation, waste management, and wastewater treatment: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 79: 255-273.    
  • 144. Bruun EW, Müller-Stöver D, Ambus P, et al. (2011) Application of biochar to soil and N2O emissions: potential effects of blending fast-pyrolysis biochar with anaerobically digested slurry. Eur J Soil Sci 62: 581-589.    
  • 145. Laird DA (2008) The Charcoal Vision: A Win-Win-Win Scenario for Simultaneously Producing Bioenergy, Permanently Sequestering Carbon, while Improving Soil and Water Quality. Agron J 100: 178-181.    
  • 146. Kuppusamy S, Thavamani P, Megharaj M, et al. (2016) Agronomic and remedial benefits and risks of applying biochar to soil: Current knowledge and future research directions. Environ Int 87: 1-12.    
  • 147. Vanholme B, Desmet T, Ronsse F, et al. (2013) Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy. Front Plant Sci 4: 174.
  • 148. Tan Z, Lin CSK, Ji X, et al. (2017) Returning biochar to fields: A review. Appl Soil Ecol 116: 1-11.    
  • 149. Beesley L, Moreno-Jiménez E, Gomez-Eyles JL, et al. (2011) A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 159: 3269-3282.    
  • 150. Lehmann J, Joseph S (2009) Biochar for Environmental Management: An Introduction. 12.
  • 151. Mohan D, Pittman Charles U, Steele PH (2006) Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-oil:  A Critical Review. Energy Fuels 20: 848-889.    
  • 152. Kong S-H, Loh S-K, Bachmann RT, et al. (2014) Biochar from oil palm biomass: A review of its potential and challenges. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 39: 729-739.    
  • 153. Qian K, Kumar A, Zhang H, et al. (2015) Recent advances in utilization of biochar. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 42: 1055-1064.    
  • 154. Shea EC (2014) Adaptive management: The cornerstone of climate-smart agriculture. J Soil Water Conserv 69: 198A-199A.    
  • 155. Tenenbaum DJ (2009) Biochar: Carbon Mitigation from the Ground Up. Environ Health Perspect 117: A70-A73.
  • 156. Liang B, Lehmann J, Solomon D, et al. (2006) Black Carbon Increases Cation Exchange Capacity in Soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70.
  • 157. Jeffery S, Bezemer TM, Cornelissen G, et al. (2013) The way forward in biochar research: targeting trade-offs between the potential wins. GCB Bioenergy 7: 1-13.
  • 158. Taha SM, Amer ME, Elmarsafy AE, et al. (2014) Adsorption of 15 different pesticides on untreated and phosphoric acid treated biochar and charcoal from water. J Environ Chem Eng 2: 2013-2025.    
  • 159. Taha SM, Amer ME, Elmarsafy AE, et al. (2014) Adsorption of 15 different pesticides on untreated and phosphoric acid treated biochar and charcoal from water. J Environ Chem Eng 2: 2013-2025.    
  • 160. Liu J, Schulz H, Brandl S, et al. (2012) Short-term effect of biochar and compost on soil fertility and water status of a Dystric Cambisol in NE Germany under field conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 175: 698-707.    
  • 161. Van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Morris S, et al. (2010) Effects of biochar from slow pyrolysis of papermill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. Plant Soil 327: 235-246.    
  • 162. Kookana RS, Sarmah AK, Van Zwieten L, et al. (2011) Chapter three - Biochar Application to Soil: Agronomic and Environmental Benefits and Unintended Consequences, In: Sparks DL (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press, 103-143.
  • 163. Major J, Rondon M, Molina D, et al. (2010) Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant Soil 333: 117-128.    
  • 164. Mohammadi A, Cowie AL, Mai TLA, et al. (2017) Climate-change and health effects of using rice husk for biochar-compost: Comparing three pyrolysis systems. J Clean Prod 162: 260-272.    
  • 165. Mohammadi A, Cowie A, Mai TLA, et al. (2016) Biochar use for climate-change mitigation in rice cropping systems. J Clean Prod 116: 61-70.    
  • 166. Mohammadi A, Cowie A, Mai TLA, et al. (2016) Quantifying the greenhouse gas reduction benefits of utilising straw biochar and enriched biochar. Energy Procedia 97: 254-261.    
  • 167. Agegnehu G, Bass AM, Nelson PN, et al. (2016) Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar-compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil. Sci Total Environ 543: 295-306.    
  • 168. Schimmelpfennig S, Glaser B (2012) One Step Forward toward Characterization: Some Important Material Properties to Distinguish Biochars. J Environ Qual 41: 1001-1013.    
  • 169. Kloss S, Zehetner F, Wimmer B, et al. (2013) Biochar application to temperate soils: Effects on soil fertility and crop growth under greenhouse conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 177: 3-15.
  • 170. Zhou H, Zhang D, Wang P, et al. (2017) Changes in microbial biomass and the metabolic quotient with biochar addition to agricultural soils: A Meta-analysis. Agric Ecosyst Environ 239: 80-89.    
  • 171. Burns RG, DeForest JL, Marxsen J, et al. (2013) Soil enzymes in a changing environment: current knowledge and future directions. Soil Biol Biochem 58: 216-234.    
  • 172. Lehmann J, Rillig MC, Thies J, et al. (2011) Biochar effects on soil biota - A review. Soil Biol Biochem 43: 1812-1836.    
  • 173. Caroline A, Debode J, Vandecasteele B, et al. (2016) Biological, physicochemical and plant health responses in lettuce and strawberry in soil or peat amended with biochar. Appl Soil Ecol 107: 1-12.    
  • 174. Kolton M, Graber ER, Tsehansky L, et al. (2017) Biochar-stimulated plant performance is strongly linked to microbial diversity and metabolic potential in the rhizosphere. New Phytol 213: 1393-1404.    
  • 175. Graber ER, Frenkel O, Jaiswal AK, et al. (2014) How may biochar influence severity of diseases caused by soilborne pathogens? Carbon Manag 5: 169-183.    
  • 176. Jaiswal AK, Frenkel O, Elad Y, et al. (2015) Non-monotonic influence of biochar dose on bean seedling growth and susceptibility to Rhizoctonia solani: the "Shifted R max-Effect". Plant Soil 395: 125-140.    
  • 177. Zhu X, Chen B, Zhu L, et al. (2017) Effects and mechanisms of biochar-microbe interactions in soil improvement and pollution remediation: a review. Environ Pollut 227: 98-115.    
  • 178. Lal R, Smith P, Jungkunst HF, et al. (2018) The carbon sequestration potential of terrestrial ecosystems. J Soil Water Conserv 73: 145A-152A.    
  • 179. Karhu K, Mattila T, Bergström I, et al. (2011) Biochar addition to agricultural soil increased CH4 uptake and water holding capacity - Results from a short-term pilot field study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 140: 309-313.    
  • 180. Bu XL, Su J, Xue JH, et al. (2019) Effect of rice husk biochar addition on nutrient leaching and microbial properties of Calcaric Cambisols. J Soil Water Conserv 74: 172-179.    
  • 181. Uchimiya M, Lima IM, Klasson KT, et al. (2010) Contaminant immobilization and nutrient release by biochar soil amendment: Roles of natural organic matter. Chemosphere 80: 935-940.    
  • 182. Xu S, Adhikari D, Huang R, et al. (2016) Biochar-facilitated microbial reduction of hematite. Environ Sci Technol 50: 2389-2395.    
  • 183. Downie A, Munroe P, Cowie A, et al. (2012) Biochar as a Geoengineering Climate Solution: Hazard Identification and Risk Management. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 42: 225-250.    
  • 184. Campbell JL, Sessions J, Smith D, et al. (2018) Potential carbon storage in biochar made from logging residue: Basic principles and Southern Oregon case studies. PLOS ONE 13: e0203475.    
  • 185. Creamer AE, Gao B, Zhang M (2014) Carbon dioxide capture using biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse and hickory wood. Chem Eng J 249: 174-179.    
  • 186. Hasler K, Bröring S, Omta SWF, et al. (2015) Life cycle assessment (LCA) of different fertilizer product types. Eur J Agron 69: 41-51.    
  • 187. Duku MH, Gu S, Hagan EB (2011) Biochar production potential in Ghana-A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15: 3539-3551.    
  • 188. Lee JW, Hawkins B, Day DM, et al. (2010) Sustainability: the capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration. Energy Environ Sci 3: 1695-1705.    
  • 189. Yang Q, Han F, Chen Y, et al. (2016) Greenhouse gas emissions of a biomass-based pyrolysis plant in China. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 53: 1580-1590.    
  • 190. Mirkouei A, Haapala KR, Sessions J, et al. (2016) Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for sustainable bio-oil production using a mixed supply chain, ASME 2016 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, V004T05A031.
  • 191. Dougherty B (2016) Biochar as a cover for dairy manure lagoons: reducing odor and gas emissions while capturing nutrients, Oregon State University.
  • 192. Stetina K (2017) Control of Fecal Malodor by Adsorption onto Biochar.
  • 193. Tsutomu I, Asada T, Kuniaki K, et al. (2004) Comparison of Removal Efficiencies for Ammonia and Amine Gases between Woody Charcoal and Activated Carbon. J Health Sci - J Health SCI 50: 148-153.
  • 194. Parham J, Deng S, Raun W, et al. (2002) Long-term cattle manure application in soil. Biol Fertil Soils 35: 328-337.    
  • 195. Gasser JKR (1987) The future of animal manures as fertilizer or waste, In: Van Der Meer HG, Unwin RJ, Van Dijk TA, et al. (Eds.), Animal Manure on Grassland and Fodder Crops. Fertilizer or Waste? Proceedings of an International Symposium of the European Grassland Federation, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 31 August-3 September 1987, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 259-278.
  • 196. Kleinman PJ, Sharpley AN, Wolf AM, et al. (2002) Measuring water-extractable phosphorus in manure as an indicator of phosphorus in runoff. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66: 2009-2015.    
  • 197. Sharpley A, Moyer B (2000) Phosphorus forms in manure and compost and their release during simulated rainfall. J Environ Qual 29: 1462-1469.
  • 198. Heuer H, Schmitt H, Smalla K (2011) Antibiotic resistance gene spread due to manure application on agricultural fields. Curr Opin Microbiol 14: 236-243.    
  • 199. Spencer JL, Guan J (2004) Public Health Implications Related to Spread of Pathogens in Manure From Livestock and Poultry Operations, In: Spencer JFT, Ragout de Spencer AL (Eds.), Public Health Microbiology: Methods and Protocols, Totowa, NJ, Humana Press, 503-515.
  • 200. You Y, Silbergeld EK (2014) Learning from agriculture: understanding low-dose antimicrobials as drivers of resistome expansion. Front Microbiol 5: 284.
  • 201. Casey JA, Curriero FC, Cosgrove SE, et al. (2013) High-density livestock operations, crop field application of manure, and risk of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in Pennsylvania. JAMA Intern Med 173: 1980-1990.    
  • 202. Manyi-Loh CE, Mamphweli SN, Meyer EL, et al. (2016) An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13: 843.    
  • 203. Nicholson FA, Groves SJ, Chambers BJ (2005) Pathogen survival during livestock manure storage and following land application. Bioresour Technol 96: 135-143.    
  • 204. Qiu M, Sun K, Jin J, et al. (2014) Properties of the plant- and manure-derived biochars and their sorption of dibutyl phthalate and phenanthrene. Sci Rep 4: 5295.
  • 205. Batista EMCC, Shultz J, Matos TTS, et al. (2018) Effect of surface and porosity of biochar on water holding capacity aiming indirectly at preservation of the Amazon biome. Sci Rep 8: 10677.    
  • 206. Brown TR, Thilakaratne R, Brown RC, et al. (2013) Techno-economic analysis of biomass to transportation fuels and electricity via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing. Fuel 106: 463-469.    
  • 207. Huang Y-F, Syu F-S, Chiueh P-T, et al. (2013) Life cycle assessment of biochar cofiring with coal. Bioresour Technol 131: 166-171.    
  • 208. Bergman PCA, Boersma AR, Zwart RWR, et al. (2005) Torrefaction for biomass co-firing in existing coal-fired power stations, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands.
  • 209. Abdullah H, Wu H (2009) Biochar as a Fuel: 1. Properties and Grindability of Biochars Produced from the Pyrolysis of Mallee Wood under Slow-Heating Conditions. Energy Fuels 23: 4174-4181.
  • 210. Yang X, Wang H, Strong P, et al. (2017) Thermal properties of biochars derived from waste biomass generated by agricultural and forestry sectors. Energies 10: 469.    
  • 211. Engineering ToolBox (2003) Classification of Coal, 2003.Available from: https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/classification-coal-d_164.html.
  • 212. Vikrant K, Kim K-H, Ok YS, et al. (2018) Engineered/designer biochar for the removal of phosphate in water and wastewater. Sci Total Environ 616-617: 1242-1260.    
  • 213. Tan X, Liu Y, Gu Y, et al. (2016) Biochar-based nano-composites for the decontamination of wastewater: A review. Bioresour Technol 212: 318-333.    
  • 214. Sizmur T, Fresno T, Akgül G, et al. (2017) Biochar modification to enhance sorption of inorganics from water. Spec Issue Biochar Prod Charact Appl - Soil Appl 246: 34-47.
  • 215. Husk BR, Sanchez JS, Anderson BC, et al. (2018) Removal of phosphorus from agricultural subsurface drainage water with woodchip and mixed-media bioreactors. J Soil Water Conserv 73: 265-275.    
  • 216. Inyang MI, Gao B, Yao Y, et al. (2016) A review of biochar as a low-cost adsorbent for aqueous heavy metal removal. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 46: 406-433.    
  • 217. Jing X-R, Wang Y-Y, Liu W-J, et al. (2014) Enhanced adsorption performance of tetracycline in aqueous solutions by methanol-modified biochar. Chem Eng J 248: 168-174.    
  • 218. Regmi P, Garcia Moscoso JL, Kumar S, et al. (2012) Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process. J Environ Manage 109: 61-69.    
  • 219. Ahmed MB, Zhou JL, Ngo HH, et al. (2016) Progress in the preparation and application of modified biochar for improved contaminant removal from water and wastewater. Bioresour Technol 214: 836-851.    
  • 220. DeBoe G, Bock E, Stephenson K, et al. (2017) Nutrient biofilters in the Virginia Coastal Plain: Nitrogen removal, cost, and potential adoption pathways. J Soil Water Conserv 72: 139-149.    
  • 221. Cao X, Ma L, Gao B, et al. (2009) Dairy-Manure Derived Biochar Effectively Sorbs Lead and Atrazine. Environ Sci Technol 43: 3285-3291.    
  • 222. Xu X, Cheng K, Wu H, et al. (2019) Greenhouse gas mitigation potential in crop production with biochar soil amendment-a carbon footprint assessment for cross-site field experiments from China. GCB Bioenergy 11: 592-605.    
  • 223. Wijitkosum S, Jiwnok P, UNISEARCH C (2019) Effect of biochar on Chinese kale and carbon storage in an agricultural area on a high rise building.
  • 224. Shaheen A, Turaib Ali Bukhari S (2018) Potential of sawdust and corn cobs derived biochar to improve soil aggregate stability, water retention, and crop yield of degraded sandy loam soil. J Plant Nutr 41: 2673-2682.    
  • 225. Sarma B, Farooq M, Gogoi N, et al. (2018) Soil organic carbon dynamics in wheat-Green gram crop rotation amended with vermicompost and biochar in combination with inorganic fertilizers: A comparative study. J Clean Prod 201: 471-480.    
  • 226. Hersh B, Mirkouei A (2019) Life Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis-Derived Biochar from Organic Wastes and Advanced Feedstocks, Proceedings of the ASME 2019 International Design Engineering Technical Conferencesand Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, IDETC2019-97896.
  • 227. Uusitalo V, Leino M (2019) Neutralizing global warming impacts of crop production using biochar from side flows and buffer zones: A case study of oat production in the boreal climate zone. J Clean Prod 227: 48-57.    
  • 228. Thers H, Djomo SN, Elsgaard L, et al. (2019) Biochar potentially mitigates greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of oilseed rape for biodiesel. Sci Total Environ 671: 180-188.    
  • 229. Alotaibi KD, Schoenau JJ (2019) Addition of Biochar to a Sandy Desert Soil: Effect on Crop Growth, Water Retention and Selected Properties. Agronomy 9: 327.    
  • 230. Wang D, Li C, Parikh SJ, et al. (2019) Impact of biochar on water retention of two agricultural soils-A multi-scale analysis. Geoderma 340: 185-191.    
  • 231. Ding Y, Liu Y, Liu S, et al. (2017) Potential Benefits from Biochar Application for Agricultural Use: A Review. Pedosphere.
  • 232. Wang L, Li L, Cheng K, et al. (2018) An assessment of emergy, energy, and cost-benefits of grain production over 6 years following a biochar amendment in a rice paddy from China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25: 9683-9696.    
  • 233. Shahzad K, Abid M, Sintim HY (2018) Wheat productivity and economic implications of biochar and inorganic nitrogen application. Agron J 110: 2259-2267.    
  • 234. Jalal F, Arif M, Ahmad I, et al. (2018) Increasing Farm Productivity and Soil Fertility on Sustainable Basis Through "Summer Gap" Utilization with Biochar and Legumes. Gesunde Pflanz 70: 45-53.    
  • 235. Mohammadi A, Cowie AL, Cacho O, et al. (2017) Biochar addition in rice farming systems: Economic and energy benefits. Energy 140: 415-425.    
  • 236. El-Naggar A, Lee SS, Rinklebe J, et al. (2019) Biochar application to low fertility soils: A review of current status, and future prospects. Geoderma 337: 536-554.    
  • 237. Al-Wabel MI, Hussain Q, Usman AR, et al. (2018) Impact of biochar properties on soil conditions and agricultural sustainability: a review. Land Degrad Dev 29: 2124-2161.    
  • 238. Robb S, Dargusch P (2018) A financial analysis and life-cycle carbon emissions assessment of oil palm waste biochar exports from Indonesia for use in Australian broad-acre agriculture. Carbon Manag 9: 105-114.    
  • 239. Dai L, Li H, Tan F, et al. (2016) Biochar: a potential route for recycling of phosphorus in agricultural residues. Gcb Bioenergy 8: 852-858.    
  • 240. Munoz C, Gongora S, Zagal E (2016) Use of biochar as a soil amendment: a brief review. Chil J Agric Anim Sci Ex Agro-Cienc 32: 37-47.
  • 241. Li W (2018) Investigating the development of the bioproducts production platform from a techno-economic and environmental perspective.
  • 242. Ji C, Cheng K, Nayak D, et al. (2018) Environmental and economic assessment of crop residue competitive utilization for biochar, briquette fuel and combined heat and power generation. J Clean Prod 192: 916-923.    
  • 243. Aller DM, Archontoulis SV, Zhang W, et al. (2018) Long term biochar effects on corn yield, soil quality and profitability in the US Midwest. Field Crops Res 227: 30-40.    
  • 244. Woolf D, Amonette JE, Street-Perrott FA, et al. (2010) Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change. Nat Commun 1: 56.    
  • 245. Mohan D, Sarswat A, Ok YS, et al. (2014) Organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water with biochar, a renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbent - A critical review. Spec Issue Biosorption 160: 191-202.
  • 246. Woolf D, Amonette JE, Street-Perrott FA, et al. (2010) Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change. Nat Commun 1: 56.    
  • 247. Mohan D, Sarswat A, Ok YS, et al. (2014) Organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water with biochar, a renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbent - A critical review. Spec Issue Biosorption 160: 191-202.
  • 248. Beesley L, Moreno-Jiménez E, Gomez-Eyles JL, et al. (2011) A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 159: 3269-3282.    
  • 249. Van Zwieten L, Kimber S, Morris S, et al. (2010) Effects of biochar from slow pyrolysis of papermill waste on agronomic performance and soil fertility. Plant Soil 327: 235-246.    
  • 250. Laird DA, Fleming P, Davis DD, et al. (2010) Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158: 443-449.    
  • 251. Steinbeiss S, Gleixner G, Antonietti M (2009) Effect of biochar amendment on soil carbon balance and soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 41: 1301-1310.    
  • 252. Laird DA, Brown RC, Amonette JE, et al. (2009) Review of the pyrolysis platform for coproducing bio-oil and biochar. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefining 3: 547-562.    
  • 253. Kookana RS, Sarmah AK, Van Zwieten L, et al. (2011) Chapter three - Biochar Application to Soil: Agronomic and Environmental Benefits and Unintended Consequences, In: Sparks DL (Ed.), Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press, 103-143.
  • 254. Regmi P, Garcia Moscoso JL, Kumar S, et al. (2012) Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process. J Environ Manage 109: 61-69.    
  • 255. Méndez A, Gómez A, Paz-Ferreiro J, et al. (2012) Effects of sewage sludge biochar on plant metal availability after application to a Mediterranean soil. Chemosphere 89: 1354-1359.    
  • 256. Laird DA, Fleming P, Davis DD, et al. (2010) Impact of biochar amendments on the quality of a typical Midwestern agricultural soil. Geoderma 158: 443-449.    
  • 257. Steinbeiss S, Gleixner G, Antonietti M (2009) Effect of biochar amendment on soil carbon balance and soil microbial activity. Soil Biol Biochem 41: 1301-1310.    
  • 258. Laird DA, Brown RC, Amonette JE, et al. (2009) Review of the pyrolysis platform for coproducing bio-oil and biochar. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefining 3: 547-562.    
  • 259. Méndez A, Gómez A, Paz-Ferreiro J, et al. (2012) Effects of sewage sludge biochar on plant metal availability after application to a Mediterranean soil. Chemosphere 89: 1354-1359.    
  • 260. Hansen S, Mirkouei A (2019) Prototyping of a Laboratory-scale Cyclone Separator for Biofuel Production from Biomass Feedstocks Using a Fused Deposition Modeling Printer, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) Conference Proceedings.
  • 261. Hansen S, Mirkouei A, Xian M (2019) Cyber-Physical Control and Optimization for Biofuel 4.0.Proc 2019 IISE Annu Conf H.E. Romeijn, A Schaefer, R. Thomas, eds.
  • 262. Tripathi M, Sahu JN, Ganesan P (2016) Effect of process parameters on production of biochar from biomass waste through pyrolysis: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 55: 467-481.    
  • 263. Bis Z, Koby\lecki R, Ścis\lowska M, et al. (2018) Biochar-Potential tool to combat climate change and drought. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol 18: 441-453.    

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved