Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Numerical modeling of effect of annealing on nanostructured CuO/TiO2 pn heterojunction solar cells using SCAPS

Mechanical Engineering Science Department, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, South Africa

Special Issues: Solar Photovoltaic System Engineering

The problem of global warming has led to increased research on solar energy and other renewable energy. Solar cells are a building block of solar energy. Different materials for solar cells fabrication exist with silicon-based being commercially viable and common. The bulk of the alternate materials aimed at providing cheap, efficient and sustainable solar cells. Nanostructured Metal oxides solar cells goes a step further to providing a clean, affordable, sustainable solar cells although the efficiency is still low. This study examined the numerical modelling of the annealing effect on the efficiency of nanostructured CuO/TiO2 pn heterojunction using SCAPS. The motivation for the study is to provide a basis for experimental design of affordable, non-toxic and efficient alternate material for silicon solar cells. The modelling was performed using Solar cells capacitance simulator (SCAPS). The input parameters, obtained from literature, include a working point of 300 K for the as-deposited CuO/TiO2 which was compared with air and nitrogen annealed (423.15 K) nanostructured CuO/TiO2 pn heterojunction. Other working condition included simulated sunlight using illumination of AM 1.5G with a 500 W Xenon lamp, silver was used as the electrode/contact. Film thickness of 2000 nm and 200 nm for absorber and buffer respectively. The results gave an optimum efficiency of 0.47 obtained from Nitrogen annealed CuO/TiO2 pn heterojunction. Also, the optimum Fill Factor was obtained to be 64.01% from Nitrogen annealed. The annealed samples performed better than the as-deposited CuO/TiO2 pn heterojunction. This result will help in the experimental fabrication of improved efficiency metal oxide-based solar cells.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Akhsassi M, El Fathi A, Erraissi N, et al. (2018) Experimental investigation and modeling of the thermal behavior of a solar PV module. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells 180: 271–279.    

2. Covill D, Blayden A, Coren D, et al. (2015) Parametric finite element analysis of steel bicycle frames: the influence of tube selection on frame stiffness. Procedia Eng 112: 34–39.    

3. Ukoba K, Imoisili PE, Adgidzi D (2015) Finite element analysis of bamboo bicycle frame. J Adv Math Compu Sci 5: 583–594.

4. Marchal PC, Ortega JG, García JG (2019) Production Planning, Modeling and Control of Food Industry Processes. Springer.

5. Biemans H, Speelman LH, Ludwig F, et al. (2013) Future water resources for food production in five South Asian river basins and potential for adaptation-A modeling study. Sci Total Environ 468: S117–S131.

6. Younas R, Imran H, Shah SIH, et al. (2019) Computational modeling of polycrystalline silicon on oxide passivating contact for silicon solar cells. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 66: 1819–1826.    

7. Fantacci S, De Angelis F (2019) Ab initio modeling of solar cell dye sensitizers: The hunt for red photons continues. Eur J Inorg Chem 2019: 743–750.    

8. Verma A, Asthana P (2020) Modeling of thin film solar photovoltaic based on ZnO/SnS Oxide-absorber substrate configuration.   Int J Eng Res Appl 4: 12–18.

9. Tyagi A, Ghosh K, Kottantharayil A, et al. (2019) An analytical model for the electrical characteristics of passivated Carrier-Selective Contact (CSC) solar cell. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 66: 1377–1385.    

10. D'Alpaos C, Moretto M (2019) Do smart grid innovations affect real estate market values? AIMS Energy 7: 141–150.    

11. Asumadu-Sarkodie S, Owusu PA (2016) A review of Ghana's solar energy potential. Aims Energy 4: 675–696.    

12. Ludin GA, Amin MA, Aminzay A, et al. (2016) Theoretical potential and utilization of renewable energy in Afghanistan. AIMS Energy 5: 1–19.    

13. Ukoba KO, Eloka-Eboka AC, Inambao FL (2018) Review of nanostructured NiO thin film deposition using the spray pyrolysis technique. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 82: 2900–2915.    

14. Tao J, Hu X, Guo Y, et al. (2019) Solution-processed SnO2 interfacial layer for highly efficient Sb2Se3 thin film solar cells. Nano Energy 60: 802–809.    

15. Ukoba KO, Inambao FL, Eloka-Eboka AC (2018) Fabrication of affordable and sustainable solar cells using NiO/TiO2 PN heterojunction. Int J Photoenergy 2018.

16. Ge M, Cao C, Huang J, et al. (2016) A review of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured materials for environmental and energy applications. J Mater Chem A 4: 6772–6801.    

17. Minami T, Nishi Y, Miyata T (2015) Heterojunction solar cell with 6% efficiency based on an n-type aluminum–gallium–oxide thin film and p-type sodium-doped Cu2O sheet. Appl Phys Express 8: 022301.    

18. Wick R, Tilley SD (2015) Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion with Cu2O. J Phys Chem C 119: 26243–26257.    

19. Ukoba OK, Inambao FL, Eloka-Eboka AC (2017) Influence of annealing on properties of spray deposited nickel oxide films for solar cells. Energy Procedia 142: 244–252.    

20. Liu H, Avrutin V, Izyumskaya N, et al. (2010) Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices. Superlattices Microstruct 48: 458–484.    

21. Ahmed S, Reuter KB, Gunawan O, et al. (2012) A high efficiency electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4solar cell. Adv Energy Mater 2: 253–259.    

22. Maeda K, Tanaka K, Fukui Y, et al. (2011) Influence of H2S concentration on the properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films and solar cells prepared by sol–gel sulfurization. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells 95: 2855–2860.    

23. Katagiri H, Jimbo K, Yamada S, et al. (2008) Enhanced conversion efficiencies of Cu2ZnSnS4-based thin film solar cells by using preferential etching technique. Appl Phys Express 1: 041201.    

24. Shabu R, Raj AME, Sanjeeviraja C, et al. (2015) Assessment of CuO thin films for its suitablity as window absorbing layer in solar cell fabrications. Mater Res Bull 68: 1–8.    

25. Ooi PK, Ng SS, Abdullah MJ, et al. (2013) Effects of oxygen percentage on the growth of copper oxide thin films by reactive radio frequency sputtering. Mater Chem Phys 140: 243–248.    

26. Valladares LDLS, Salinas DH, Dominguez AB, et al. (2012) Crystallization and electrical resistivity of Cu2O and CuO obtained by thermal oxidation of Cu thin films on SiO2/Si substrates. Thin Solid Films 520: 6368–6374.    

27. Liu M, Lin MC, Wang C (2011) Enhancements of thermal conductivities with Cu, CuO, and carbon nanotube nanofluids and application of MWNT/water nanofluid on a water chiller system. Nanoscale Res Lett 6: 297.    

28. Cutter A (2011) The Electricians Green Handbook, Delmar, New York, 288.

29. Singla V, Garg VK (2013) Modeling of solar photovoltaic module & effect of insolation variation using Matlab/Simulink. Int J Adv Eng Tech 4: 5–9.

30. Gray JL (1991) Adept: a general purpose numerical device simulator for modeling solar cells in one-, two-, and three-dimensions. The Conference Record of the Twenty-Second IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference-1991 436–438.

31. Lee YJ, Gray JL (1993) Numerical modeling of polycrystalline CdTe and CIS solar cells. In Conference Record of the Twenty Third IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference-1993 586–591.

32. Gloeckler M, Fahrenbruch AL, Sites JR (2003) Numerical modeling of CIGS and CdTe solar cells: setting the baseline. In 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 2003. Proceedings of 1: 491–494.

33. Muthuswamy G (2005) Numerical modeling of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell using MEDICI. Graduate theses, University of South Florida.

34. Ganvir R (2016) Modelling of the nanowire CdS-CdTe device design for enhanced quantum efficiency in Window-absorber type solar cells. Master's thesis,   University of Kentucky.

35. Burgelman M, Nollet P, Degrave S (2000) Modelling polycrystalline semiconductor solar cells. Thin Solid Films 361: 527–532.

36. Ukoba KO, Inambao FL (2018) Modeling of fabricated NiO/TiO2 PN heterojunction solar cells. Int J Appl Eng Res 13: 9701–9705.

37. Schwartz R, Gray J, Lundstrom M (1985) Current status of one-and two-dimensional numerical models: Successes and limitations.

38. Hossain MI, Alharbi FH, Tabet N (2015) Copper oxide as inorganic hole transport material for lead halide perovskite based solar cells. Solar Energy 120: 370–380.    

39. Li BS, Akimoto K, Shen A (2009) Growth of Cu2O thin films with high hole mobility by introducing a low-temperature buffer layer. J Cryst Growth 311: 1102–1105.    

40. Tripathi AK, Singh MK, Mathpal MC, et al. (2013) Study of structural transformation in TiO2 nanoparticles and its optical properties. J Alloys Compd 549: 114–120.    

41. Kırbıyık Ç, Kara DA, Kara K, et al. (2019) Improving the performance of inverted polymer solar cells through modification of compact TiO2 layer by different boronic acid functionalized self-assembled monolayers. Appl Surf Sci 479: 177–184.    

42. Sawicka-Chudy P, Sibiński M, Wisz G, et al. (2018) Numerical analysis and optimization of Cu2O/TiO2, CuO/TiO2, heterojunction solar cells using SCAPS. J Phys: Conference Series 1033: 012002.    

43. Ichimura M, Kato Y (2013) Fabrication of TiO2/Cu2O heterojunction solar cells by electrophoretic deposition and electrodeposition. Mater Sci in Semicond Process 16: 1538–1541.    

44. Tao J, Liu J, Chen L, et al. (2016) 7.1% efficient co-electroplated Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells with sputtered CdS buffer layers. Green Chem 18: 550–557.

45. Zhao W, Zhou W, Miao X (2012) Numerical simulation of CZTS thin film solar cell. 2012 7th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS) 502–505.

46. Dussan A, Bohórquez A, Quiroz HP (2017) Effect of annealing process in TiO2 thin films: Structural, morphological, and optical properties. Appl Surf Sci 424: 111–114.    

47. Sahrul Saehana, Muslimin (2013)   Performance Improvement of Cu2O/TiO2 Heterojunction Solar Cell by Employing Polymer Electrolytes. Int J Eng Techno 13: 83–86

48. Mahato S, Kar AK (2017) The effect of annealing on structural, optical and photosensitive properties of electrodeposited cadmium selenide thin films. J Sci: Adv Mater Devices 2: 165–171.    

49. Sundqvist A, Sandberg OJ, Nyman M, et al. (2016) Origin of the S-Shaped JV curve and the Light-Soaking issue in inverted organic solar cells. Adv Energy Mater 6: 1502265.    

50. Tan K, Lin P, Wang G, et al. (2016) Controllable design of solid-state perovskite solar cells by SCAPS device simulation. Solid-State Electron 126: 75–80.    

51. Iqbal K, Ikram M, Afzal M, et al. (2018) Efficient, low-dimensional nanocomposite bilayer CuO/ZnO solar cell at various annealing temperatures. Mater Renewable Sustainable Energy 7: 4.    

52. Masudy-Panah S, Dalapati GK, Radhakrishnan K, et al. (2015) p-CuO/n-Si heterojunction solar cells with high open circuit voltage and photocurrent through interfacial engineering. Prog Photovoltaic: Res Appl 23: 637–645.    

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved