Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Energy and low carbon development efforts in Ghana: institutional arrangements, initiatives, challenges and the way forward

1 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ghana. Energy Resources and Climate Change, Unit, P.O. Box M326. Accra.
2 UNEP DTU Partnership, DTU Management Engineering, Denmark Technical University, Marmorvej 51, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark.

Over the years, Ghana has invested considerable effort and resources together with international partners to develop the energy sector and to mainstream energy low carbon pathways into national development plans. Low carbon development (LCD) provides a good opportunity, of not only building upon earlier energy and climate change local processes and structures but also help to mainstream low carbon agenda in economic activities and national development plans. For this to work however, require efficient institutions and effective institutional arrangements. Based on extensive literature analysis, personal communications and inputs from stakeholders, the paper highlights the key institutional arrangements, their interactions, challenges and proffers recommendations for improvements. To improve energy and low carbon development effort from the perspectives of institutional structures, would require, clearer institutional mandates, continuous improvements in institutional coordination (intra and inter), capacity and skills development, sustained visibility of the essence of energy and LCD at high political levels as well as engagement by civil societies. Equally important are the issues of finance, data availability and quality, monitoring and evaluation.
  Article Metrics


1. Trading Economics, 2016. Available from: http://www.tradingeconomics.com/ghana/gdp.

2. GSGDA (2010) Ghana Shared Growth the Development Agenda (2010–2013). Medium term development policy framework. Volume 1, 2010. National Development Planning Commission.

3. NCCP (2012) National Climate Change Policy. Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (MESTI), Ghana.

4. OECD (2010) Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons.

5. EPA (2011) Ghana Second Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA-UNDP-GEF. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ghana.

6. UDP/MESTI (2012) Preliminary country study on Institutional Governance for Climate Change Coordination and Implementation in Ghana. Prepared by the Ministry of Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation (MESTI) for the UNEP DTU Partnership. UNEP’s Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation (FIRM) project. Ghana.

7. Project Catalyst (2009) Institutional arrangement for advancing sustainable, low carbon growth and development.

8. The International Monetary Fund, 2013. Available from: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2012/cr12203.pdf.

9. Sawyer D, Dion J, Murphy D, et al. (2012) Developing financeable NAMAs. A Practitioners Guide. IISD Report.

10. Cameron L, van Tilburg Xander, Würtenberger L (2011) Policy Brief: NAMAs and the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda 2010–2013, Energy research Centre of the Netherland,12.

11. NDPC, National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) Act, 1994.

12. Calland R, Reddy Trusha (2012) Towards A Framework of National Climate Finance Governance in Africa.

13. MoE (2010) National Energy Policy. Ministry of Energy. Ghana.

14. Wurtenberger L, Bunzeck IG, van Tilburg X (2011) Initiatives related to climate change in Ghana: Towards coordinating efforts. Energy Research Centre (ECN) of the Netherlands and Climate & Development Knowledge Network, 36.

15. ESMAP/World Bank (2012) Low Carbon Growth Country Studies Program. Lessons learned from seven country studies. Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) of the World Bank, Carbon Finance Assist and Department for International Development (DFID).

16. Energy Commission, 2013. Available from: www.energycom.gov.gh.

17. National Mirror, 2013. Available from:

18. The Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MESTI) (2013) Ghana Goes for Green Growth. National engagement on climate change. Discussion document. National Climate Change Committee (NCCC).

19. Accra Bus Rapid Transit System, 2013. Available from: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1439098.

20. NAMAcademy, UNEP Risoe Centre for Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC), 2013. Available from: http://www.namacademy.org/

21. Lu Shyi-Min, Lu Ching, Chen Falin, et al. (2013) Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan. Low Carbon Economy 4: 12-24.    

22. Chen Falin, Lu Shyi-Min, Chang Yi-Lin (2007) Renewable energy in Taiwan: Its developing status and strategy. Energy 32: 1634-1646.    

23. Lutken S, Fenhann J, Honostroza M, et al. (2011) Low Carbon Development Strategies; A premier on framing nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) in developing countries.

Copyright Info: © 2016, Emmanuel Kofi Ackom, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved