Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Stimulation of soil microorganisms in pesticide-contaminated soil using organic materials

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan

Topical Section: Bioremediation of contaminated soil

Agrochemicals such as pesticides have contributed to significant increases in crop yields; however, they can also be linked to adverse effects on human health and soil microorganisms. For efficient bioremediation of pesticides accumulated in agricultural fields, stimulation of microorganisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the relationships between bacterial biomass and total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) in 427 agricultural soils. The soil bacterial biomass was generally positively correlated with TC and TN contents in the soil, but some soils had a low bacterial biomass despite containing high amounts of TC and TN. Soils of two fields (fields A and B) with low bacterial biomass but high TC and TN contents were investigated. Long-term pesticide use (dichloropropane-dichloropropene and fosthiazate in field A and chloropicrin in field B) appeared to have contributed to the low bacterial biomass observed in these soils. Soil from field A was treated with different organic materials and incubated for 1 month under laboratory conditions. The bacterial biomass in field A soil was enhanced in treatments containing organic materials rich in TN. Application of organic materials stimulated the growth of microorganisms with the potential to bioremediate pesticide-polluted soils.
  Article Metrics

Keywords soil microorganisms; pesticides; dichloropropane-dichloropropene; fosthiazate; chloropicrin; bioremediation; organic materials

Citation: Dinesh Adhikari, Ima Yudha Perwira, Kiwako S. Araki, Motoki Kubo. Stimulation of soil microorganisms in pesticide-contaminated soil using organic materials. AIMS Bioengineering, 2016, 3(3): 379-388. doi: 10.3934/bioeng.2016.3.379


  • 1. Bünemann EK, Condron LM (2007) Phosphorus and sulphur cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In Nutrient Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 65–92.
  • 2. Khan AA, Jilani G, Akhtar MS, et al. (2009) Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria: occurrence, mechanisms and their role in crop production. J Agric Biol Sci 1: 48–58.
  • 3. Wilhelm Scherer H (2009) Sulfur in soils. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 172: 326–335.    
  • 4. Adhikari D, Araki KS, Mukai M, et al. (2015) Development of an efficient bioremediation system for petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils based on hydrocarbon degrading bacteria and organic material control. Austin J Biotechnol Bioeng 2: 1–7.
  • 5. Fukuhara Y, Horii S, Matsuno T, et al. (2013) Distribution of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the soil environment and their contribution to bioremediation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 170: 329–339.    
  • 6. Horvath RS (1972) Microbial co-metabolism and the degradation of organic compounds in nature. Bacteriol Rev 36:146.
  • 7. Fenner K, Canonica S, Wackett LP, et al. (2013) Evaluating pesticide degradation in the environment: blind spots and emerging opportunities. Science 341: 752–758.    
  • 8. Matson PA, Parton WJ, Power AG, et al. (1997) Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277: 504–509.    
  • 9. Singh BK, Kuhad, RC, Singh A, et al. (1999) Biochemical and molecular basis of pesticide degradation by microorganisms. Crit Rev Biotechnol 19: 197–225.    
  • 10. Bollen WB (1961). Interactions between pesticides and soil microorganisms. Annu Rev Microbiol 15: 69–92.    
  • 11. Johnsen K, Jacobsen CS, Torsvik V, et al. (2001) Pesticide effects on bacterial diversity in agricultural soils–a review. Biol Fertil Soils 33: 443–453.    
  • 12. Adhikari D, Kai T, Mukai M, et al. (2014) A new proposal for a soil fertility index (SOFIX) for organic agriculture and development of a SOFIX database for agricultural fields. Curr Topics Biotechnol 8: 81–91.
  • 13. Donald Nicholas DJ, Nason A (1957) Determination of nitrate and nitrite. Methods Enzymol 3: 981–984.    
  • 14. Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 27, 31–36.
  • 15. Aoshima H, Kimura A, Shibutani A, et al. (2006) Evaluation of soil bacterial biomass using environmental DNA extracted by slow-stirring method. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 71: 875–880.    
  • 16. ChemADVISOR Inc Staff (1994) Regulated Chemicals Directory. Chapman and Hall Inc., 1714.
  • 17. EPA (2004) Pesticide fact sheet (fosthiazate). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticide and Toxic Substances. www3.epa.gov.
  • 18. Domsch KH, Jagnow G, Anderson TH (1983) An ecological concept for the assessment of side-effects of agrochemicals on soil micro-organisms. Residue Rev 86:65–105.
  • 19. Brookes PC (1995) The use of microbial parameters in monitoring soil pollution by heavy metals. Biol Fertil Soils 19: 269–279.    
  • 20. Schneider M, Quistad GB. Casida JE (1999) Glutathione activation of chloropicrin in the Salmonella mutagenicity test. Mutation Res Gen Toxicol Environ Mutagenesis 439: 233–238.    
  • 21. Yamamoto T, Ultra Jr VU, Tanaka S, et al. (2008) Effects of methyl bromide fumigation, chloropicrin fumigation and steam sterilization on soil nitrogen dynamics and microbial properties in a pot culture experiment. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 54: 886–894.    
  • 22. Fernández C, Rodrı́guez-Kábana R, Warrior P, et al. (2001) Induced soil suppressiveness to a root-knot nematode species by a nematicide. Biol Control 22: 103–114.    
  • 23. Anderson JPE, Armstrong RA, Smith SN (1981) Methods to evaluate pesticide damage to the biomass of the soil microflora. Soil Biol Biochem 13: 149–153.    
  • 24. Lal R, Lal S (1988) Pesticides and nitrogen cycle. Vol. II. CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  • 25. Tu CM (1981) Effects of pesticides on activities of enzymes and microorganisms in a clay soil. J Environ Sci Health Part B 16: 179–191.    


Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Motoki Kubo, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved