Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Nanoporous metals processed by dealloying and their applications

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, California State Polytechnic University Pomona, 3801 W Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768, USA
2 Department of Civil Engineering, California State Polytechnic University Pomona, 3801 W Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768, USA
3 Diamond Bar High School, 21400 Pathfinder Rd, Diamond Bar, CA 91765, USA

Topical Section: Porous Materials

Porous metals and alloys have many important characteristics such as light weight, high surface area, good electrical conductivity, and enhanced surface plasmonics. They have found many applications in chemical and biomedical engineering fields. This review deals with various dealloying techniques for making nanoporous metals, alloys, and composite materials. Typical dealloying processes and their recent development are introduced. The dealloying techniques include chemical etching, electrochemical leaching, high temperature element removal, thermic reduction, Galvanic replacement, template approach, physical vacuum processing, magnetic field induced processing, plasma reaction etc. Although various noble porous metals such as Pt, Pd, Au, and Ru were extensively studied earlier for applications in catalysis and energy storage/conversions, other porous metallic alloys are under investigations for the removal of pollutants, energy absorbing, filtration of metal ions, organic dyes, and microbial organisms. Advances in processing nanoporous particles, nanosheets, and porous fibers will be discussed. The applications of recently developed nanoporous metals are presented as well.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Juarez T, Biener J, Weissmuller J, et al. (2017) Nanoporous metals with structural hierarchy: A review. Adv Eng Mater 19: 1700389.    

2. Li D, Liao HY, Kikuchi H, et al. (2017) Microporous Co@C nanoparticles prepared by dealloying CoAl@C precursors: Achieving strong wideband microwave absorption via controlling carbon shell thickness. ACS Appl Mater Inter 9: 44704–44714.    

3. Liu T, Pang Y, Zhu M, et al. (2014) Microporous Co@CoO nanoparticles with superior microwave absorption properties. Nanoscale 6: 2447–2454.    

4. Chen Q, Ding Y, Chen MW (2018) Nanoporous metal by dealloying for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. MRS Bull 43: 43–48.    

5. Jin HJ, Weissmüller J, Farkas D (2018) Mechanical response of nanoporous metals: A story of size, surface stress, and severed struts. MRS Bull 43: 35–42.    

6. Kunduraci M (2016) Dealloying technique in the synthesis of lithium-ion battery anode materials. J Solid State Electr 20: 2105–2111.    

7. Zhao CH, Wada T, De Andrade V, et al. (2018) Imaging of 3D morphological evolution of nanoporous silicon anode in lithium ion battery by X-ray nano-tomography. Nano Energy 52: 381–390.    

8. Li H, Fang X, Li G, et al. (2018) Investigation on fabrication and capillary performance of multi-scale composite porous wick made by alloying-dealloying method. Int J Heat Mass Tran 127: 145–153.

9. Su L, Gan YX (2012) Nanoporous Ag and Ag–Sn anodes for energy conversion in photochemical fuel cells. Nano Energy 1: 159–163.

10. Inkrott DK, Willingham RL, Balster T, et al. (2011) Preparation and electrochemical catalytic property of Au–Ni alloy with porous structure. J Alloy Compd 509: l47–l51.    

11. Zhang FM, Wang LL, Li P, et al. (2017) Preparation of nano to submicro-porous TiMo foams by spark plasma sintering. Adv Eng Mater 19: 1600600.    

12. Heiden M, Huang S, Nauman E, et al. (2016) Nanoporous metals for biodegradable implants: Initial bone mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and degradation behavior. J Biomed Mater Res A 104: 1747–1758.    

13. Ren YB, Li J, Yang K (2017) Preliminary study on porous high-manganese 316L stainless steel through physical vacuum dealloying. Acta Metall Sin-Engl 30: 731–734.    

14. Morrish R, Dorame K, Muscat AJ (2011) Formation of nanoporous Au by dealloying AuCu thin films in HNO3. Scripta Mater 64: 856–859.    

15. Zhang XL, Li GJ, Duan D, et al. (2018) Formation and control of nanoporous Pt ribbons by two-step dealloying for methanol electro-oxidation. Corros Sci 135: 57–66.    

16. Wang JY, Yang S (2018) Nanoporous copper fabricated by dealloying Mn–Cu precursors with minor nickel element addition and heat treatment coarsening. Nano 13: 1850058.    

17. Liu H, Wang XL, Wang JX, et al. (2017) High electrochemical performance of nanoporous Fe3O4/CuO/Cu composites synthesized by dealloying Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystal. J Alloy Compd 729: 360–369.    

18. Hao Q, Ye JJ, Xu CX (2017) Facile fabrication of Fe3O4 octahedra with bimodal conductive network of nanoporous Cu and graphene nanosheets for high-performance anode in Li-ion batteries. J Alloy Compd 727: 34–42.    

19. Chauvin A, Heu WTC, Tessier PY, et al. (2016) Impact of the morphology and composition on the dealloying process of co-sputtered silver–aluminum alloy thin films. Phys Status Solidi B 253: 2167–2174.    

20. Sun Y, Balk TJ (2008) A multi-step dealloying method to produce nanoporous gold with no volume change and minimal cracking. Scripta Mater 58: 727–730.    

21. Maruya K, Yamauchi R, Narushima T, et al. (2013) Structure consideration of platinum nanoparticles constructing nanostructures obtained by electrochemical dealloying of a Cu–Pt alloy. J Nanosci Nanotechno 13: 2999–3003.    

22. Wang S, Chen B, Liang YF, et al. (2018) A feasible strategy for fabricating surface porous network in Fe–Si ribbons. Materials 11: 701.    

23. Paschalidou EM, Fiore G, Xue Y, et al. (2018) Comparing selective corrosion of Au-based amorphous, partially amorphous, and devitrified alloys. J Alloy Compd 745: 212–216.    

24. Yang F, Li YG, Wei YH, et al. (2018) Electrochemical synthesis of a surface-porous Mg70.5Al29.5 eutectic alloy in a neutral aqueous NaCl solution. Appl Surf Sci 435: 1246–1248.

25. McCue I, Karma A, Erlebacher J (2018) Pattern formation during electrochemical and liquid metal dealloying. MRS Bull 43: 27–34.    

26. Okulov IV, Okulov AV, Soldatov IV, et al. (2018) Open porous dealloying-based biomaterials as a novel biomaterial platform. Mat Sci Eng C-Mater 88: 95–103.    

27. Mokhtari M, Le Bourlot C, Adrien J, et al. (2017) Cold-rolling influence on microstructure and mechanical properties of NiCr–Ag composites and porous NiCr obtained by liquid metal dealloying. J Alloy Compd 707: 251–256.    

28. Adamek G (2017) Tantalum foams prepared by the thermal dealloying process. Int J Refract Met H 65: 88–93.    

29. Wada T, Yubuta K, Kato H (2016) Evolution of a bicontinuous nanostructure via a solid-state interfacial dealloying reaction. Scripta Mater 118: 33–36.    

30. Panagiotopoulos NT, Jorge AM, Rebai I, et al. (2016) Nanoporous titanium obtained from a spinodally decomposed Ti alloy. Micropor Mesopor Mat 222: 23–26.    

31. Okulov IV, Okulov AV, Volegov AS, et al. (2018) Tuning microstructure and mechanical properties of open porous TiNb and TiFe alloys by optimization of dealloying parameters. Scripta Mater 154: 68–72.    

32. Wada T, Geslin PA, Kato H (2018) Preparation of hierarchical porous metals by two-step liquid metal dealloying. Scripta Mater 142: 101–105.    

33. Zhao CH, Wada T, De Andrade V, et al. (2017) Three-dimensional morphological and chemical evolution of nanoporous stainless steel by liquid metal dealloying. ACS Appl Mater Inter 9: 34172–34184.    

34. Ren YB, Sun YX, Yang K (2016) Study on micron porous copper prepared by physical vacuum dealloying. Acta Metall Sin-Engl 29: 1144–1147.    

35. Sun YX, Ren YB (2015) New preparation method of porous copper powder through vacuum dealloying. Vacuum 122: 215–217.    

36. Sun YX, Ren YB, Yang K (2016) New preparation method of micron porous copper through physical vacuum dealloying of Cu–Zn alloys. Mater Lett 165: 1–4.    

37. Zhang T, Sun YQ, Hang LF, et al. (2018) Periodic porous alloyed Au–Ag nanosphere arrays and their highly sensitive SERS performance with good reproducibility and high density of hotspots. ACS Appl Mater Inter 10: 9792–9801.    

38. Yi Y, Zheng XY, Fu ZB, et al. (2018) Multi-scale modeling for predicting the stiffness and strength of hollow-structured metal foams with structural hierarchy. Materials 11: 380.    

39. Li Q, Lian LX, Liu Y, et al. (2017) Synthesis, microstructure, and catalytic performance of monolithic low-density porous Au. Adv Eng Mater 19: 1700045.    

40. Chauvin A, Stephant N, Du K, et al. (2017) Large-scale fabrication of porous gold nanowires via laser interference lithography and dealloying of gold–silver nano-alloys. Micromachines 8: 168.    

41. Luc W, Jiao F (2016) Synthesis of nanoporous metals, oxides, carbides, and sulfides: beyond nanocasting. Accounts Chem Res 49: 1351–1358.    

42. Zhang K, Tan X, Zhang J, et al. (2014) Template-dealloying synthesis of ultralow density Au foams with bimodal porous structure. RSC Adv 4: 7196–7201.    

43. Zhang K, Tan X, Wu W, et al. (2013) Template synthesis of low-density gold foams: Density, microstructure and compressive strength. Mater Res Bull 48: 3499–3504.    

44. Lee GH, An S, Jang SW, et al. (2017) Fabrication of nanoporous noble metal thin films by O2 plasma dealloying. Thin Solid Films 631: 147–151.    

45. Du HH, Zhou C, Xie XB, et al. (2017) Pseudocapacitance of nanoporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles on Ni foam substrate: Influence of the annealing temperature. Int J Hydrogen Energ 42: 15236–15245.    

46. Pang Y, Xie XB, Li D, et al. (2017) Microporous Ni@NiO nanoparticles prepared by chemically dealloying Al3Ni2@Al nanoparticles as a high microwave absorption material. J Magn Magn Mater 426: 211–216.    

47. Li H, Zhu M, Pang Y, et al. (2016) Influences of ultrasonic irradiation on the morphology and structure of nanoporous Co nanoparticles during chemical dealloying. Prog Nat Sci-Mater 26: 562–566.    

48. Zhang HX, Wang ZF, Yang MZ, et al. (2017) The effect of an external magnetic field on the dealloying process of the Ni–Al alloy in alkaline solution. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19: 18167–18171.    

49. Tsurusawa H, Russo J, Leocmach M, et al. (2017) Formation of porous crystals via viscoelastic phase separation. Nat Mater 16: 1022–1023.    

50. Lu Y, Ye WC, Yang Q, et al. (2016) Three-dimensional hierarchical porous PtCu dendrites: A highly efficient peroxidase nanozyme for colorimetric detection of H2O2. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 230: 721–730.    

51. Ye W, Chen Y, Zhou F, et al. (2012) Fluoride-assisted galvanic replacement synthesis of Ag and Au dendrites on aluminum foil with enhanced SERS and catalytic activities. J Mater Chem 22: 18327–18334.    

52. Barman BK, Nanda KK (2015) Uninterrupted galvanic reaction for scalable and rapid synthesis of metallic and bimetallic sponges/dendrites as efficient catalysts for 4-nitrophenol reduction. Dalton T 44: 4215–4222.    

53. Liu J, Wu Q, Huang F, et al. (2013) Facile preparation of a variety of bimetallic dendrites with high catalytic activity by two simultaneous replacement reactions. RSC Adv 3: 14312–14321.    

54. Esque-de los Ojos D, Zhang J, Fornell J, et al. (2016) Nanomechanical behaviour of open-cell nanoporous metals: Homogeneous versus thickness-dependent porosity. Mech Mater 100: 167–174.    

55. Farghaly AA, Khan RK, Collinson MM (2018) Biofouling-resistant platinum bimetallic alloys. ACS Appl Mater Inter 10: 21103–21112.    

56. Frei M, Kohler C, Dietel L, et al. (2018) Pulsed electrodeposition of highly porous Pt alloys for use in methanol, formic acid, and glucose fuel cells. ChemElectroChem 5: 1013–1023.    

57. Lin JD, Chou CT (2017) The influence of acid etching on the electrochemical supercapacitive properties of Ni–P coatings. Surf Coat Tech 325: 360–369.    

58. Lilleodden ET, Voorhees PW (2018) On the topological, morphological, and microstructural characterization of nanoporous metals. MRS Bull 43: 20–26.    

59. Song T, Yan M, Qian M (2018) The enabling role of dealloying in the creation of specific hierarchical porous metal structures-A review. Corros Sci 134: 78–98.    

60. Liu WB, Cheng P, Yan JZ, et al. (2018) Temperature-induced surface reconstruction and interface structure evolution on ligament of nanoporous copper. Sci Rep 8: 447.    

61. Wang ZL, Ning SC, Liu P, et al. (2017) Tuning surface structure of 3D nanoporous gold by surfactant-free electrochemical potential cycling. Adv Mater 29: 1703601.    

62. Zhang JM, Ma F, Xu KW (2004) Calculation of the surface energy of FCC metals with modified embedded-atom method. Appl Surf Sci 229: 34–42.    

63. Fujita T (2017) Hierarchical nanoporous metals as a path toward the ultimate three-dimensional functionality. Sci Technol Adv Mat 18: 724–740.    

64. Lian LX, Yao YF, Liu Y, et al. (2017) A segmental dealloying for fabricating the gradient nanoporous metal materials. J Porous Mat 24: 211–215.    

65. Pia G, Cincotti A, Delogu F (2016) Thermally and catalytically induced coarsening of nanoporous Au. Mater Lett 183: 114–116.    

66. Schubert I, Huck C, Krober P, et al. (2016) Porous gold nanowires: Plasmonic response and surface-enhanced infrared absorption. Adv Opt Mater 4: 1838–1845.    

67. Serin RB, Abdullayeva N, Sankir M (2017) Dealloyed ruthenium film catalysts for hydrogen generation from chemical hydrides. Materials 10: 738.    

68. Chauvin A, Delacote C, Boujtita M, et al. (2016) Dealloying of gold–copper alloy nanowires: From hillocks to ring-shaped nanopores. Beilstein J Nanotech 7: 1361–1367.    

69. Gao JJ, Qiu HJ, Wen YR, et al. (2016) Enhanced electrochemical supercapacitance of binder-free nanoporous ternary metal oxides/metal electrode. J Colloid Interf Sci 474: 18–24.    

70. Zhang X, Hashimoto T, Lindsay J, et al. (2016) Investigation of the de-alloying behaviour of theta-phase (Al2Cu) in AA2024-T351 aluminium alloy. Corros Sci 108: 85–93.    

71. Ruestes CJ, Schwen D, Millan EN, et al. (2018) Mechanical properties of Au foams under nanoindentation. Comp Mater Sci 147: 154–167.    

72. Wang CY, Li M, Zhu M, et al. (2017) Controlling the mechanical properties of bulk metallic glasses by superficial dealloyed layer. Nanomaterials 7: 352.    

73. Qin CL, Wang CY, Hu QF, et al. (2016) Hierarchical nanoporous metal/BMG composite rods with excellent mechanical properties. Intermetallics 77: 1–5.    

74. Liu F, Ye XL, Jin HJ (2017) Anomalous low strain induced by surface charge in nanoporous gold with low relative density. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19: 19217–19224.    

75. Ngo BND, Roschning B, Albe K, et al. (2017) On the origin of the anomalous compliance of dealloying-derived nanoporous gold. Scripta Mater 130: 74–77.    

76. Cao YK, Ma XY, Chen YZ, et al. (2016) Size effect of ligaments on charge induced surface stress response of nanoporous Pd prepared by dealloying. Scripta Mater 123: 1–4.    

77. Weissmüller J, Cahn JW (1997) Mean stresses in microstructures due to interface stresses: A generalization of a capillary equation for solids. Acta Mater 45: 1899–1906.    

78. Viswanath RN, Kramer D, Weismüller J (2005) Variation of the surface stress–charge coefficient of platinum with electrolyte concentration. Langmuir 21: 4604–4609.    

79. Viswanath RN, Kramer D, Weismüller J (2008) Adsorbate effects on the surface stress–charge response of platinum electrodes. Electrochim Acta 53: 2757–2767.    

80. Viswanath RN, Weismüller J (2013) Electrocapillary coupling coefficients for hydrogen electrosorption on palladium. Acta Mater 61: 6301–6309.    

81. Ye XL, Jin HJ (2016) Corrosion-induced strengthening: Development of high-strength nanoporous metals. Adv Eng Mater 18: 1050–1058.    

82. Kim NJ, Lin MS (2010) A nanoporous metallic mat showing excellent and stable surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy activities. J Nanosci Nanotechno 10: 5077–5082.    

83. Zeng Y, Zhang J, Dong X, et al. (2014) Pd based nanoporous metals with superior catalytic activity. Mater Res Innov 18: S4-734–S4-739.

84. Wang SS, Zhang C, Li HY, et al. (2017) Enhanced electro-catalytic performance of Pd-based amorphous nanoporous structure synthesized by dealloying Pd32Ni48P20 metallic glass. Intermetallics 87: 6–12.    

85. Weissmuller J, Sieradzki K (2018) Dealloyed nanoporous materials with interface-controlled behavior. MRS Bull 43: 14–19.    

86. Zhou M, Huang X, Hagos K, et al. (2017) Nanoporous copper fabricated from Zr65Cu17.5Fe10Al7.5 amorphous alloy and its electrocatalytic oxidation performance. Intermetallics 90: 23–29.

87. Wang ZF, Fei PY, Xiong HQ, et al. (2017) CoFe2O4 nanoplates synthesized by dealloying method as high performance Li-ion battery anodes. Electrochim Acta 252: 295–305.    

88. Okulov AV, Volegov AS, Weissmuller J, et al. (2018) Dealloying-based metal-polymer composites for biomedical applications. Scripta Mater 146: 290–294.    

89. Wang Y, Huang W, Si CH, et al. (2016) Self-supporting nanoporous gold–palladium overlayer bifunctional catalysts toward oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Nano Res 9: 3781–3794.    

90. Song YY, Zhang XL, Yang S, et al. (2016) Electrocatalytic performance for methanol oxidation on nanoporous Pd/NiO composites prepared by one-step dealloying. Fuel 181: 269–276.    

91. Li X, Qiu HJ, Wang JQ, et al. (2016) Corrosion of ternary Mn–Cu–Au to nanoporous Au–Cu with widely tuned Au/Cu ratio for electrocatalyst. Corros Sci 106: 55–60.    

92. Giarratano F, Arzac GM, Godinho V, et al. (2018) Nanoporous Pt-based catalysts prepared by chemical dealloying of magnetron-sputtered Pt–Cu thin films for the catalytic combustion of hydrogen. Appl Catal B-Environ 235: 168–176.    

93. Qiu HJ, Gao JJ, Chiang FK, et al. (2018) A general and scalable approach to produce nanoporous alloy nanowires with rugged ligaments for enhanced electrocatalysis. J Mater Chem A 6: 12541–12550.    

94. Zhang XL, Duan D, Li GJ, et al. (2018) Monolithic Au/CeO2 nanorod framework catalyst prepared by dealloying for low-temperature CO oxidation. Nanotechnology 29: 095606.    

95. Zhang WQ, He J, Liu SY, et al. (2018) Atomic origins of high electrochemical CO2 reduction efficiency on nanoporous gold. Nanoscale 10: 8372–8376.    

96. Zhou QX, Qi L, Yang HX, et al. (2018) Hierarchical nanoporous platinum–copper alloy nanoflowers as highly active catalysts for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane. J Colloid Surf Sci 513: 258–265.    

97. Kim YT, Lopes PP, Park SA, et al. (2017) Balancing activity, stability and conductivity of nanoporous core–shell iridium/iridium oxide oxygen evolution catalysts. Nat Commun 8: 1449.    

98. Fujita T, Higuchi K, Yamamoto Y, et al. (2017) In-situ TEM study of a nanoporous Ni–Co catalyst used for the dry reforming of methane. Metals 7: 406.    

99. Sarkar S, Subbarao U, Peter SC (2017) Evolution of dealloyed PdBi2 nanoparticles as electrocatalysts with enhanced activity and remarkable durability in hydrogen evolution reactions. J Mater Chem A 5: 15950–15960.    

100. Mahr C, Kundu P, Lackmann A, et al. (2017) Quantitative determination of residual silver distribution in nanoporous gold and its influence on structure and catalytic performance. J Catal 352: 52–58.    

101. Xiao XX, Engelbrekt C, Zhang MW, et al. (2017) A straight forward approach to electrodeposit tungsten disulfide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composites onto nanoporous gold for the hydrogen evolution reaction. Appl Surf Sci 410: 308–314.    

102. Xu CX, Hao Q, Zhao DY (2016) Facile fabrication of a nanoporous Si/Cu composite and its application as a high-performance anode in lithium-ion batteries. Nano Res 9: 908–916.    

103. Zhao H, Lei DN, He YB, et al. (2018) Compact 3D copper with uniform porous structure derived by electrochemical dealloying as dendrite-free lithium metal anode current collector. Adv Energy Mater 8: 1800266.    

104. Fujita T (2017) Hierarchical nanoporous metals as a path toward the ultimate three-dimensional functionality. Sci Technol Adv Mat 18: 724–740.    

105. Ding Y, Erlebacher J (2003) Nanoporous metals with controlled multimodal pore size distribution. J Am Chem Soc 125: 7772–7773.    

106. Qi Z, Weissmüller J (2013) Hierarchical nested-network nanostructure by dealloying. ACS Nano 7: 5948–5954.    

107. Qin H, Shamso AE, Centeno A, et al. (2017) Enhancement of the up conversion photoluminescence of hexagonal phase NaYF4:Yb3+, Er3+ nanoparticles by mesoporous gold films. Phys Chem Chem Phys 19: 19159–19167.    

108. Wang L, Lu DF, Gao R, et al. (2017) Theoretical analyses and chemical sensing application of surface plasmon resonance effect of nanoporous gold films. Acta Phys-Chim Sin 33: 1223–1229.

109. Lin B, Kong LX, Hodgson PD, et al. (2017) Controlled porosity and pore size of nano-porous gold by thermally assisted chemical dealloying-a SAXS study. RSC Adv 7: 10821–10830.    

110. Fratzl P, Weinkamer R (2007) Nature's hierarchical materials. Prog Mater Sci 52: 1263–1334.    

111. Luhrs L, Weissmuller J (2018) Nanoporous copper-nickel-Macroscopic bodies of a strong and deformable nanoporous base metal by dealloying. Scripta Mater 155: 119–123.    

112. Liu T, Pang Y, Xie XB, et al. (2016) Synthesis of microporous Ni/NiO nanoparticles with enhanced microwave absorption properties. J Alloy Compd 667: 287–296.    

113. Sohn M, Lee DG, Park HI, et al. (2018) Microstructure controlled porous silicon particles as a high capacity lithium storage material via dual step pore engineering. Adv Funct Mater 28: 1800855.    

114. Detsi E, Petrissans X, Yan Y, et al. (2018) Tuning ligament shape in dealloyed nanoporous tin and the impact of nanoscale morphology on its applications in Na-ion alloy battery anodes. Phys Rev Mater 2: 055404.    

115. Gao H, Niu JZ, Zhang C, et al. (2018) A dealloying synthetic strategy for nanoporous bismuth-antimony anodes for sodium ion batteries. ACS Nano 12: 3568–3577.    

116. Luo Z, Xu JC, Yuan B, et al. (2018) A novel 3D bimodal porous current collector with large interconnected spherical channels for improved capacity and cycling stability of Sn anode in Li-ion batteries. Mater Lett 213: 189–192.    

117. Liu H, Wang XL, Wang JX, et al. (2017) Hierarchical porous CoNi/CoO/NiO composites derived from dealloyed quasicrystals as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries. Scripta Mater 139: 30–33.    

118. Yang H, Qiu HJ, Wang JQ, et al. (2017) Nanoporous metal/metal-oxide composite prepared by one-step de-alloying AlNiCoYCu metallic glasses. J Alloy Compd 703: 461–465.    

119. Guo XW, Han JH, Liu P, et al. (2016) Hierarchical nanoporosity enhanced reversible capacity of bicontinuous nanoporous metal based Li-O2 battery. Sci Rep 6: 33466.    

120. Yun QB, He YB, Lv W, et al. (2016) Chemical dealloying derived 3D porous current collector for Li metal anodes. Adv Mater 28: 6932–6939.    

121. Dong CQ, Kou TY, Gao H, et al. (2018) Eutectic-derived mesoporous Ni–Fe–O nanowire network catalyzing oxygen evolution and overall water splitting. Adv Energy Mater 8: 1701347.    

122. Dan ZH, Lu JF, Li F, et al. (2018) Ethanol-mediated 2D growth of Cu2O nanoarchitectures on nanoporous Cu templates in anhydrous ethanol. Nanomaterials 8: 18.

123. Chen AY, Qiu YJ, Zhu YK, et al. (2016) Facile fabrication of nanoporous gold with bimodal pore structure. Mater Lett 184: 282–285.    

124. Diao FY, Xiao XX, Luo B, et al. (2018) Two-step fabrication of nanoporous copper films with tunable morphology for SERS application. Appl Surf Sci 427: 1271–1279.    

125. Rao W, Wang D, Kups T, et al. (2017) Nanoporous gold nanoparticles and Au/Al2O3 hybrid nanoparticles with large tunability of plasmonic properties. ACS Appl Mater Inter 9: 6273–6281.    

126. Li XQ, Huang BS, Qiu CC, et al. (2016) Hierarchical nested-network porous copper fabricated by one-step dealloying for glucose sensing. J Alloy Compd 681: 109–114.    

127. Solanki V, Krupanidhi SB, Nanda KK (2017) Sequential elemental dealloying approach for the fabrication of porous metal oxides and chemiresistive sensors thereof for electronic listening. ACS Appl Mater Inter 9: 41428–41434.    

128. Xue YP, Scaglione F, Rizzi P, et al. (2017) Improving the chemical de-alloying of amorphous Au alloys. Corros Sci 127: 141–146.    

129. Wang K, Stenner C, Weissmller J (2017) A nanoporous gold–polypyrrole hybrid nanomaterial for actuation. Sensor Actuat B-Chem 248: 622–629.    

130. Zhang J, Lv LF, Gao H, et al. (2017) Electrochemical actuation behaviors and mechanisms of bulk nanoporous Ni–Pd alloy. Scripta Mater 137: 73–77.    

131. Gao YE, Zhao LF, Yao XH, et al. (2018) Corrosion behavior of porous ZrO2 ceramic coating on AZ31B magnesium alloy. Surf Coat Tech 349: 434–441.    

132. Yang F, Yan ZY, Wei YH, et al. (2018) Fabrication of surface-porous Mg–Al alloys with different microstructures in a neutral aqueous solution. Corros Sci 130: 138–142.    

133. Şeker E, Shih WC, Stine KJ (2018) Nanoporous metals by alloy corrosion: Bioanalytical and biomedical applications. MRS Bull 43: 49–56.    

134. Zhao ZY, Gong RX, Zheng L, et al. (2016) In vivo neural recording and electrochemical performance of microelectrode arrays modified by rough-surfaced AuPt alloy nanoparticles with nanoporosity. Sensors 16: 1851.

135. Fang J, Xu NS, Yang TR, et al. (2017) CO2 capture performance of silver-carbonate membrane with electrochemically dealloyed porous silver matrix. J Membrane Sci 523: 439–445.    

136. Fang J, Tong JJ, Huang K (2016) A superior mixed electron and carbonate-ion conducting metal-carbonate composite membrane for advanced flue-gas carbon capture. J Membrane Sci 505: 225–230.    

137. Terock M, Konrad CH, Popp R, et al. (2016) Tailored platinum-nickel nanostructures on zirconia developed by metal casting, internal oxidation and dealloying. Corros Sci 112: 246–254.    

138. Fujita T, Abe H, Tanabe T, et al. (2016) Earth-abundant and durable nanoporous catalyst for exhaust-gas conversion. Adv Funct Mater 26: 1609–1616.    

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved