Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Solution-processed hybrid light emitting and photovoltaic devices comprising zinc oxide nanorod arrays and tungsten trioxide layers

Institute of Lighting and Energy Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, 301 Gaofa 3rd Road, Guiren District, Tainan City 71150, Taiwan R.O.C.

Topical Section: Optical/Electronic/Magnetic properties

The goal of this research is to prepare inverted optoelectronic devices with improved performance by combining zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays and tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer. ZnO seed layers with thickness of 52 nm were established, followed by growth of ZnO nanorods with length of 300 nm vertical to the ITO substrates in the precursor bath. The ZnO nanorod arrays possess high transmittance up to 92% in the visible range. Inverted light-emitting devices with the configuration of ITO/ZnO nanorods/ionic PF/MEH-PPV/PEDOT:PSS/Au were constructed. The best device achieved a max brightness and current efficiency of 10,620 cd/m2 and 0.25 cd/A at 10 V, respectively, revealing much higher brightness compared with conventional devices using Ca/Al as cathode, or inverted devices based on ZnO thin film. By inserting a WO3 thin layer between PEDOT:PSS and Au electrode, the max brightness and current efficiency were further improved to 21,881 cd/m2 and 0.43 cd/A, respectively. Inverted polymer solar cells were also fabricated with the configuration of ITO/ZnO nanorods/ionic PF/P3HT:PC61BM/PEDOT/WO3/Au. The best device parameters, including the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency, reached 0.54 V, 14.87 mA/cm2, 41%, and 3.31%, respectively
  Article Metrics


1. Morii K, Ishida M, Takashima T, et al. (2006) Encapsulation-free hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett 89: 183510.    

2. Bolink HJ, Coronado E, Orozco J, et al. (2009) Efficient Polymer Light-Emitting Diode Using Air-Stable Metal Oxides as Electrodes. Adv Mater 21: 79-82.

3. Phuong PTT, Kim NY, Jung S, et al. (2013) Improved Performance of Inverted Hybrid Light-Emitting Diodes by Post-Annealed ZnO Electron Transport Layer. J Photonic Sci Technol 3: 41-46.

4. Lee BR, Lee WH, Nguyen TL, et al. (2013) Highly Efficient Red-Emitting Hybrid Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes via Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Based on Homogeneous Polymer Blends with the Same Polyfluorene Backbone. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5: 5690-5695.

5. Tsai TY, Yan PR, Yang SH (2016) Solution-Processed Hybrid Light-Emitting Devices Comprising TiO2 Nanorods and WO3 Layers as Carrier-Transporting Layers. Nanoscale Res Lett 11: 516.    

6. Hsieh CH, Cheng YJ, Li PJ, et al. (2010) Highly Efficient and Stable Inverted Polymer Solar Cells Integrated with a Cross-Linked Fullerene Material as an Interlayer. J Am Chem Soc 132: 4887-4893.    

7. Li G, Shrotriya V, Huang J, et al. (2005) High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends. Nat Mater 4: 864-868.    

8. Liao SH, Jhuo HJ, Cheng YS, et al. (2013) Fullerene Derivative-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanofilm as the Cathode of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells with Low-Bandgap Polymer (PTB7-Th) for High Performance. Adv Mater 25: 4766-4771.    

9. Olson DC, Piris J, Collins RT, et al. (2006) Hybrid photovoltaic devices of polymer and ZnO nanofiber composites. Thin Solid Films 496: 26-29.    

10. Kao SH, Tseng ZL, Ho PY, et al. (2013) Significance of the ZnO nanorod array morphology for low-bandgap polymer solar cells in inverted structures. J Mater Chem A 1: 14641-14648.    

11. Ho PY, Thiyagu S, Kao SH, et al. (2014) ZnO nanorod arrays for various low-bandgap polymers in inverted organic solar cells. Nanoscale 6: 466-471.    

12. Tan Z, Li L, Cui C, et al. (2012) Solution-Processed Tungsten Oxide as an Effective Anode Buffer Layer for High-Performance Polymer Solar Cells. J Phys Chem C 116: 18626-18632.

13. Lampande R, Kim GW, Boizot J, et al. (2013) A highly efficient transition metal oxide layer for hole extraction and transport in inverted polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. J Mater Chem A 1: 6895-6900.    

14. Neef CJ, Ferraris JP (2000) MEH-PPV: Improved Synthetic Procedure and Molecular Weight Control. Macromolecules 33: 2311-2314.    

15. Huang WJ, Huang PH, Yang SH (2016) PCBM doped with fluorene-based polyelectrolytes as electron transporting layers for improving the performance of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Chem Commun 52: 13572-13575.    

16. Greene LE, Law M, Tan DH, et al. (2005) General Route to Vertical ZnO Nanowire Arrays Using Textured ZnO Seeds. Nano Lett 5: 1231-1236.    

17. Lee YJ, Ruby DS, Peters DW, et al. (2008) ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells. Nano Lett 8: 1501-1505.    

18. Chao YC, Chen CY, Lin CA, et al. (2010) Antireflection effect of ZnO nanorod arrays. J Mater Chem 20: 8134-8138.    

19. So H, Senesky DG (2016) ZnO nanorod arrays and direct wire bonding on GaN surfaces for rapid fabrication of antireflective, high-temperature ultraviolet sensors. Appl Surf Sci 387: 280-284.    

20. So H, Lim J, Suria AJ, et al. (2017) Highly antireflective AlGaN/GaN ultraviolet photodetectors using ZnO nanorod arrays on inverted pyramidal surfaces. Appl Surf Sci 409: 91-96.    

Copyright Info: © 2017, Sheng-Hsiung Yang, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved