Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Comparison between direct transesterification of microalgae and hydrochar

Yoshikawa Laboratory, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 226-8502, Japan

Topical Section: Bioenergy and Biofuel

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of microalgae is one of processes that can effectively remove moisture from microalgae. In addition, the hydrochar retains most of fatty acids from microalgae feedstock, and the content of fatty acids in hydrochar is doubled. This research concentrates on the comparison between direct transesterification of microalgae and hydrochar. The result shows that the biodiesel yields of hydrochar were higher than those of microalgae at the same reaction conditions due to the higher extraction rate of fatty acids from hydrochar. Finally, the amount of methanol and catalyst which is required for a given amount of microalgae can be reduced to a half through the direct transesterification of hydrochar.
  Article Metrics


1. Mata TM, Martins AA, Caetano NS (2010) Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 14: 217–232.    

2. Hidalgo P, Toro C, Navia R (2013) Advances in direct transesterification of microalgal biomass for biodiesel production. Rev Environ Sci Bio 12: 179–199.    

3. Griffiths M, Van Hille R, Harrison S (2010) Selection of direct transesterification as the preferred method for assay of fatty acid content of microalgae. Lipids 45: 1053–1060.    

4. Ehimen E, Sun Z, Carrington C (2010) Variables affecting the in situ transesterification of microalgae lipids. Fuel 89: 677–684.    

5. Wahlen BD, Willis RM, Seefeldt LC (2011) Biodiesel production by simultaneous extraction and conversion of total lipids from microalgae, cyanobacteria, and wild mixed-cultures. Bioresource Technol 102: 2724–2730.    

6. Sathish A, Smith BR, Sims RC (2014) Effect of moisture on in situ transesterification of microalgae for biodiesel production. J Chem Technol Biot 89: 137–142.    

7. Velasquez-Orta S, Lee J, Harvey A (2013) Evaluation of FAME production from wet marine and freshwater microalgae by in situ transesterification. Biochem Eng J 76: 83–89.    

8. Heilmann SM, Davis HT, Jader LR, et al. (2010) Hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae. Biomass Bioenerg 34: 875–882.    

9. Lu Y, Levine RB, Savage PE (2014) Fatty acids for nutraceuticals and biofuels from hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae. Ind Eng Chem Res 54: 4066–4071.

10. Du Z, Mohr M, Ma X, et al. (2012) Hydrothermal pretreatment of microalgae for production of pyrolytic bio-oil with a low nitrogen content. Bioresource Technol 120: 13–18.    

11. Levine RB, Pinnarat T, Savage PE (2010) Biodiesel production from wet algal biomass through in situ lipid hydrolysis and supercritical transesterification. Energ Fuel 24: 5235–5243.    

12. Broch A, Jena U, Hoekman SK, et al. (2013) Analysis of solid and aqueous phase products from hydrothermal carbonization of whole and lipid-extracted algae. Energies 7: 62–79.    

13. Halim R, Gladman B, Danquah MK, et al. (2011) Oil extraction from microalgae for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technol 102: 178–185.    

14. Thenot JP, Horning E, Stafford M, et al. (1972) Fatty acid esterification with N, N-dimethylformamide dialkyl acetals for GC analysis. Anal Lett 5: 217–223.    

15. Greenspan P, Mayer EP, Fowler SD (1985) Nile red: a selective fluorescent stain for intracellular lipid droplets. J Cell Biol 100: 965–973.    

16. Iwai M, Ikeda K, Shimojima M, et al. (2014) Enhancement of extraplastidic oil synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using a type‐2 diacylglycerol acyltransferase with a phosphorus starvationxtraplible promoter. Plant Biotechnol J 12: 808–819.    

17. Velasquez-Orta S, Lee J, Harvey A (2012) Alkaline in situ transesterification of Chlorella vulgaris. Fuel 94: 544–550.    

18. Heilmann SM, Jader LR, Harned LA, et al. (2011) Hydrothermal carbonization of microalgae II. Fatty acid, char, and algal nutrient products. Appl Energ 88: 3286–3290.

19. Heilmann SM, Jader LR, Sadowsky MJ, et al. (2011) Hydrothermal carbonization of distiller's grains. Biomass Bioenerg 35: 2526–2533.    

20. Valdez PJ, Nelson MC, Wang HY, et al. (2012) Hydrothermal liquefaction of nannochloropsis sp.: systematic study of process variables and analysis of the product fractions. Biomass Bioenerg 46: 317–331.

21. Poling BE, Thomson GH, Friend DG, et al. (2007) Physical and Chemical Data, In: Green DW, Perry RH, editors, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 8th Edition, United States of America: McGraw-Hill Professional, 144–185.

22. Dupont C, Chiriac R, Gauthier G, et al. (2014) Heat capacity measurements of various biomass types and pyrolysis residues. Fuel 115: 644–651.    

23. Schneider N, Fortin TJ, Span R, et al. (2016) Thermophysical properties of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis salina. Fuel Process Technol 152: 390–398.    

24. Shuit SH, Lee KT, Kamaruddin AH, et al. (2010) Reactive extraction and in situ esterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel. Fuel 89: 527–530.

25. Du Z, Hu B, Shi A, et al. (2012) Cultivation of a microalga Chlorella vulgaris using recycled aqueous phase nutrients from hydrothermal carbonization process. Bioresource Technol 126: 354–357.    

Copyright Info: © 2017, Vo Thanh Phuoc, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved