Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Cooling effects of infrared radiative inorganic fillers in heat dissipation coatings at temperatures below 400 K

1 Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
2 R & D Center, PELNOX, LTD., Hadano, Japan

Heat dissipation for electronic devices has attracted extensive interest because the reliability, lifetime, and performance are seriously affected by temperature increases during the operation. The effects of inorganic fillers in heat dissipation coatings on the temperature reduction of heat sources between 310 and 400 K were investigated. Acrylic coating films with calcium fluoride, pyrolytic boron nitride, and silicon carbide particle fillers were formed on pristine aluminum plates that were then heated in a closed system. A significant temperature reduction of about 17 K was obtained at the surface of a heat source with an acrylic coating film including calcium fluoride particles on the aluminum plate; under equivalent conditions, the uncoated aluminum plate temperature reached 373 K. The materials used in the coatings were characterized by wavelength-dependent infrared absorption and emission properties. Although the overall emissivity in wide wavelength range is previously considered to be the most crucial variable in radiative cooling, materials have specific infrared absorption and emission properties depending on their physical structures. Therefore, elucidating the relationship between the characteristics of an individual heat emission material and its cooling effects is necessary in order to design more effective heat dissipation measures based on radiation. It was confirmed that the selection of an appropriate filler material with specific infrared emission properties corresponding to the emitting wavelength at the given temperature of the objects to be cooled was important. Distinctive radiative cooling effects were thus obtained, even in the relatively low-temperature range examined here, by the selection of appropriate materials with radiative properties in the temperature range of interest.
  Article Metrics

Keywords heat dissipation; coating; filler; resin; cooling

Citation: Satoshi Nakamura, Eiji Iwamura, Yasuyuki Ota, Kensuke Nishioka. Cooling effects of infrared radiative inorganic fillers in heat dissipation coatings at temperatures below 400 K. AIMS Materials Science, 2018, 5(4): 756-769. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2018.4.756


  • 1. Chang MH, Das D, Varde PV, et al. (2012) Light emitting diodes reliability review. Microelectron Reliab 52: 762–782.    
  • 2. Jakhar S, Soni MS, Gakkhar N (2016) Historical and recent development of concentrating photovoltaic cooling technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev 60: 41–59.    
  • 3. Lall P, Pecht M, Hakim EB (1995) Characterization of functional relationship between temperature and microelectronic reliability. Microelectron Reliab 35: 377–402.    
  • 4. Meneghini M, Dal Lago M, Trivellin N, et al. (2012) Chip and package-related degradation of high power white LEDs. Microelectron Reliab 52: 804–812.    
  • 5. Zhao R, Zhang S, Liu J, et al. (2015) A review of thermal performance improving methods of lithium ion battery: Electrode modification and thermal management system. J Power Sources 299: 557–577.    
  • 6. Baby R, Balaji C (2012) Experimental investigations on phase change material based finned heat sinks for electronic equipment cooling. Int J Heat Mass Tran 55: 1642–1649.    
  • 7. Goli P, Legedza S, Dhar A, et al. (2014) Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries. J Power Sources 248: 37–43.    
  • 8. Mills A, Farid M, Selman JR, et al. (2006) Thermal conductivity enhancement of phase change materials using a graphite matrix. Appl Therm Eng 26: 1652–1661.    
  • 9. Tan FL, Tso CP (2004) Cooling of mobile electronic devices using phase change materials. Appl Therm Eng 24: 159–169.    
  • 10. Micheli L, Fernández EF, Almonacid F, et al. (2016) Performance, limits and economic perspectives for passive cooling of high concentrator photovoltaics. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 153: 164–178.    
  • 11. Nagano H, Ohnishi A, Nagasaka Y (2001) Thermophysical properties of high-thermal-conductivity graphite sheets for spacecraft thermal design. J Thermophys Heat Tr 15: 347–353.
  • 12. Nemoto E, Gunji T, Yamashita K, et al. (2009) Simultaneous separation measurement of principal thermal conductivities and principal axis angle of pyrolytic graphite sheet for two-dimensional anisotropic material using integrated multi-temperature probe method. Jpn J Appl Phys 48: 05EB03.
  • 13. Wen CY, Huang GW (2008) Application of a thermally conductive pyrolytic graphite sheet to thermal management of a PEM fuel cell. J Power Sources 178: 132–140.    
  • 14. Zhou H, Zhu J, Liu Z, et al. (2014) High thermal conductivity of suspended few-layer hexagonal boron nitride sheets. Nano Res 7: 1232–1240.    
  • 15. Aliev AE, Lima MH, Silverman EM, et al. (2010) Thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube sheets: radiation losses and quenching of phonon modes. Nanotechnology 21: 035709.    
  • 16. Che J, Çağın T, Deng W, et al. (2000) Thermal conductivity of diamond and related materials from molecular dynamics simulations. J Chem Phys 113: 6888–6900.    
  • 17. Che J, Çagin T, Goddard III WA (2000) Thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes. Nanotechnology 11: 65.    
  • 18. Inagaki M, Kaburagi Y, Hishiyama Y (2014) Thermal management material: graphite. Adv Eng Mater 16: 494–506.    
  • 19. Kidalov S, Shakhov F (2009) Thermal conductivity of diamond composites. Materials 2: 2467–2495.    
  • 20. Varshney V, Patnaik SS, Roy AK, et al. (2010) Modeling of thermal transport in pillared-graphene architectures. ACS Nano 4: 1153–1161.    
  • 21. Zhang G, Jiang S, Yao W, et al. (2016) Enhancement of natural convection by carbon nanotube films covered microchannel-surface for passive electronic cooling devices. ACS Appl Mater Inter 8: 31202–31211.    
  • 22. Walsh E, Grimes R (2007) Low profile fan and heat sink thermal management solution for portable applications. Int J Therm Sci 46: 1182–1190.
  • 23. Bao H, Yan C, Wang B, et al. (2017) Double-layer nanoparticle-based coatings for efficient terrestrial radiative cooling. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 168: 78–84.    
  • 24. Chen Z, Zhu L, Raman A, et al. (2016) Radiative cooling to deep sub-freezing temperatures through a 24-h day–night cycle. Nature Commun 7: 13729.    
  • 25. Granqvist CG, Hjortsberg A (1981) Radiative cooling to low temperatures: General considerations and application to selectively emitting SiO films. J Appl Phys 52: 4205–4220.    
  • 26. Hossain MM, Gu M (2016) Radiative cooling: principles, progress, and potentials. Adv Sci 3: 1500360.    
  • 27. Kecebas MA, Menguc MP, Kosar A, et al. (2017) Passive radiative cooling design with broadband optical thin-film filters. J Quant Spectrosc Ra 198: 179–186.    
  • 28. Huang Z, Ruan X (2017) Nanoparticle embedded double-layer coating for daytime radiative cooling. Int J Heat Mass Tran 104: 890–896.    
  • 29. Kou JL, Jurado Z, Chen Z, et al. (2017) Daytime radiative cooling using near-black infrared emitters. ACS Photonics 4: 626–630.    
  • 30. Raman AP, Anoma MA, Zhu L, et al. (2014) Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight. Nature 515: 540–544.    
  • 31. Nishioka K, Ota Y, Tamura K, et al. (2013) Heat reduction of concentrator photovoltaic module using high radiation coating. Surf Coat Tech 215: 472–475.    
  • 32. Chen H, Ginzburg VV, Yang J, et al. (2016) Thermal conductivity of polymer-based composites: Fundamentals and applications. Prog Polym Sci 59: 41–85.    
  • 33. Choi S, Kim J (2013) Thermal conductivity of epoxy composites with a binary-particle system of aluminum oxide and aluminum nitride fillers. Compos Part B-Eng 51: 140–147.    
  • 34. Hashim NH, Anithambigai P, Mutharasu D (2015) Thermal characterization of high power LED with ceramic particles filled thermal paste for effective heat dissipation. Microelectron Reliab 55: 383–388.    
  • 35. Shao Y, Shi FG (2017) Passive cooling enabled by polymer composite coating: Dependence on filler, filler size and coating thickness. J Electron Mater 46: 4057–4061.    
  • 36. Tsuda S, Shimizu M, Iguchi F, et al. (2017) Enhanced thermal transport in polymers with an infrared-selective thermal emitter for electronics cooling. Appl Therm Eng 113: 112–119.    
  • 37. Yuan C, Li L, Duan B, et al. (2016) Locally reinforced polymer-based composites for efficient heat dissipation of local heat source. Int J Therm Sci 102: 202–209.    
  • 38. Bird RB, Stewart WE, Lightfoot EN (1960) Transport Phenomena, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • 39. Nishioka K, Araki K, Ota Y, et al. (2011) Heat release effect of high radiation layer coated on aluminum chassis of concentrator photovoltaic module. 7th International Conference on concentrating Photovoltaic Systems.


Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved