Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

On the dynamic compared to static grain growth rate in 3 mole% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3 Y-TZP)

1 Materials Science and Engineering Dept., Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08855-0909, USA
2 Material Science and Engineering Dept., North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7907, USA

The reason for the higher dynamic grain growth rate compared to static rate is considered with focus on the results by Nied and Wadsworth on 3 mole% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3 Y-TZP). Included is a review of the models and theories of the pertinent grain growth kinetics and on the concurrent grain boundary cavitation. It is concluded that the same physical mechanism governs both dynamic and static grain growth, and that the existing grain size is an important factor in both cases. It is further concluded that the major factor responsible for the higher dynamic grain growth rate is the pre-exponential in the Arrhenius-type grain growth kinetics equation, the entropy corresponding to the atomic diffusion being an important parameter. There exists insufficient information to ascertain the influence of grain boundary cavitation on the concurrent dynamic grain growth.
  Article Metrics

Keywords zirconia; grain growth; grain size; cavitation; kinetics; entropy

Citation: Jun Wang, Hans Conrad. On the dynamic compared to static grain growth rate in 3 mole% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (3 Y-TZP). AIMS Materials Science, 2016, 3(3): 1208-1221. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2016.3.1208


  • 1. Kingery WD, Bowen HK, Ullmann DR (1976) Introduction to Ceramics, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • 2. Nieh TG, Wadsworth J (1989) Dynamic grain growth during superplastic deformation of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal. J Am Ceram Soc 72: 1469–1472.
  • 3. Nieh TG, Wadsworth J (1990) Effect of grain size on superplastic behavior of Y-TZP. Scripta Metall 24: 763–766.    
  • 4. Sherby OD, Wadsworth J (1989) Superplasticity–recent advances and future directions. Prog Mater Sci 33: 169–221.
  • 5. Wilkinson DS, Caceres CH (1984) On the mechanism of strain-enhanced grain growth during superplastic deformation. Acta Metall 32: 1335–1345.
  • 6. Schissler DJ, Chokshi AH, Nieh TG, et al. (1991) Microstructural aspects of superplastic tensile deformation and cavitation in fine-grained yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia. Acta Metall Mater 39: 3227–3236.
  • 7. Burke JE, Turnbull D (1953) Recrystallization and grain growth. Pro Met Phys 3: 220–292.
  • 8. Cahn JW (1962) The impurity-drag effect in grain boundary motion. Acta Metall 10: 789–798.
  • 9. Lücke K, Stüwe H-P (1963) On the theory of grain boundary motion in Recovery and Recrystallization of Metals, L. Himmel, ed., Gordon and Breach, New York, 171–210.
  • 10. Hwang S-L, Chen I-W (1990) Grain size control of tetragonal zirconia polycrystals using the space charge concept. J Am Ceram Soc 73: 3269–3277.
  • 11. Chaim R (2008) Activation energy and grain growth in polycrystalline Y-TZP ceramics. Mater Sci Eng A 486: 439–446.    
  • 12. Wang J, Conrad H (2015) Grain boundary curvature measurements in annealed yttria‐stabilized zirconia (3Y‐TZP) and their relation to mean grain size. J Am Ceram Soc 1–3.
  • 13. Smith CS, Guttman L (1953) Measurement of internal boundaries in three-dimensional structures by random sectioning. Trans AIME 197: 81–87.
  • 14. Wang J, Conrad H (2013) Grain boundary resistivity in yttria-stabilized zirconia. Processing and Properties of Advanced Ceramics and Composites V: Ceramic Trans. 240: 175–188.
  • 15. Vandermeer RA (1967) A transient effect in grain boundary migration during recrystallization in aluminum. Acta Metall 156: 447–458.
  • 16. Wang J, Conrad H (2014) Contribution of the space charge to the grain boundary energy in yttria-stabilized zirconia. J Mater Sci 49: 6074–6080.    
  • 17. Chen I-W, Xue LA (1990) Development of superplastic structural ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 73: 2585–2609.
  • 18. Clark MA, Alden TH (1973) Deformation enhanced grain growth in superplastic Sn-1% Bi alloy. Acta Metall 21: 1195–1206.    
  • 19. Grey EA, Higgins GT (1972) Solute limited grain boundary migration: A rationalisation of grain growth. Acta Metall 21: 309–321.
  • 20. Yang Di, Conrad H (2008) Retardation of grain growth and cativation during superplastic deformation of ultrafine-grained 3 Y-TZP at 1450–1600 oC. J Mater Sci 43: 4475–4483.
  • 21. Ma Y, Langdon TG (1994) A critical assessment of flow and cavity formation in a superplastic yttria-stabilized zirconia. Acta Metall Mater 42: 2753–2761.
  • 22. Stowell RJ (1982) Cavitation in superplasticity in Superplastic Forming of Structural Alloys, N. E. Paton, C. H. Hamilton, eds., TMS, Warrendals, PA, 321–336.
  • 23. Chokshi AH, Langdon TG (1987) A model for diffusional cavity growth in superplasticity. Acta Metall 15: 1089–1101.
  • 24. Tsoga A, Nikolopoulos P (1996) Surface and grain-boundary energies in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ-8 mol%). J Mater Sci 316: 5409–5413.
  • 25. Wang J, Du A, Yang D, et al. (2013) Grain boundary resistivity of yttria-stabilized zirconia at 1400 oC. J Ceram 2013.
  • 26. Wang J, Yang D, Conrad H (2013) Transient-regime grain growth in nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia annealed without and with a DC electric field. Scripta Mater 69: 351–353.
  • 27. Shewmon PG (1963) Diffusion in Solids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 62–65.
  • 28. Cachadiña I, Solier JD, Dominguez-Rodriguez A (1995) Activation entropy and Gibbs free energy for conduction in yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystals. Phys Rev B 52: 10872–10876.    


Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Jun Wang, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved