Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Options to feed plastic waste back into the manufacturing industry to achieve a circular carbon economy

The EcoComplex, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, USA

Special Issues: Impacts of Microplastics in the Urban Environment Conference

Plastic waste disposal practices and subsequent leakage into the environment are creating environmental, economic, and social problems. Reduction of plastic waste generation is one of the main solutions offered to remedy the plastic waste problem. However, it is undeniable that plastics play a significant role in benefiting humanity. Plastic medical devices save lives, household equipment and vehicle components are lighter and more fuel efficient. Conventional plastics are produced from virgin fossil feedstocks (oil and natural gas), and their carbon footprint is contributing to the problem of climate change. However, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories generally report that emissions related to global waste management may not be as high as other GHG sources, i.e. electricity generation from fossil fuel combustion or transportation, concluding that innovative approaches in the waste management sector may not substantially contribute to climate change mitigation efforts. This paper examines near or long term technical and policy changes needed that can support environmental health, mitigate climate change, and promote social justice by feeding plastic waste back into the circular carbon economy.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords circular economy; plastic waste; climate change mitigation; plastic feedstocks

Citation: Serpil Guran. Options to feed plastic waste back into the manufacturing industry to achieve a circular carbon economy. AIMS Environmental Science, 2019, 6(5): 341-355. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2019.5.341

References

  • 1. Giacovelli C, UNEP: SINGLE-USE PLASTICS: A Roadmap for Sustainability, 2018. Available from: https://www.academia.edu/37294255/SINGLE-USE_PLASTICS_A_Roadmap_for_Sustainability.
  • 2. Recycling is not enough, GAIA/Zero Waste Europe, 2018. Available from: http://www.no-burn.org/wp-content/uploads/Recycling-is-Not-Enough-online-version.pdf.
  • 3. World Economic Forum, Ellen McArthur Foundation and McKinsey &Company. The New Plastics Economy-Rethinking the future of Plastics, 2016. Available from: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_The_New_Plastics_Economy.pdf.
  • 4. Zheng J, Suh S (2019) Strategies to reduce the global carbon footprint of plastics. Nat Clim Change 9: 374–378.    
  • 5. Parker L, Elliott K. Plastics recycling is broken. Here's how to fix it, National Geographic, 2018. Available from: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/06/china-plastic-recycling-ban-solutions-science-environment/.
  • 6. Geyer R, Jambeck JR, Law KL (2017) Production, use and fate of all plastics ever made. Sci Adv 3: el700782.
  • 7. Plastics-the facts An analysis of European plastic production, demand and waste data, Plastics Europe, (2018), Available from: https://www.plasticseurope.org/application/files/6315/4510/9658/Plastics_the_facts_2018_AF_web.pdf
  • 8. USEPA, (2018). Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: (2015) Fact Sheet-Assessing Trends in Material Generation, Recycling, Composting, Combustion with Energy Recovery and Landfilling in the United States.
  • 9. Lahti T, Wincent J, Parida N (2018) A definition and theoretical review of circular economy, value creation, and sustainable business models: where are we now and where should research move in the future? Sustain 10: 2799–2817.    
  • 10. Kok L, Wurpel G, Ten Wolde A. Unleashing the power of the circular economy, IMSA and Circle Economy, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2013. Available from: https://mvonederland.nl/system/files/media/unleashing_the_power_of_the_circular_economy-circle_economy.pdf.
  • 11. Michelini G, Moraes RN, Cunha RN, et al. (2017) From linear to circular economy: PSS conducting the transition. Procedia CIRP 64: 2–6.    
  • 12. Vinylplus, PVC recycling technologies, 2017. Available from: www.vinylplus.eu.
  • 13. Steffen W, Richardson K, Rockström J, et al. (2015) Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 347: 1259855.    
  • 14. How Fracked Gas, Cheap Oil and Unburnable Coal are Driving the Plastics Boom. by The Center for International Environmental Law is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Center for International Environmental Law, 2017. Available from: https://www.ciel.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Fueling-Plastics-How-Fracked-Gas-Cheap-Oil-and-Unburnable-Coal-are-Driving-the-Plastics-Boom.pdf.
  • 15. Olivier JGJ, Schure KM, Peters JAHW (2017) Trends in Global CO2 and Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Summary of the 2017 Report, PBL. Netherlands Environ Assess Agen 2017: 5.
  • 16. Cramer J (2017) The raw materials transition in the Amsterdam Metropolitan are: Added value for the economy, well-being and the environment. Enviro 59:15–21.
  • 17. Mechanical Recycling Fact Sheet (2015) European Bioplastics, https://docs.european-bioplastics.org/publications/bp/EUBP_BP_Mechanical_recycling.pdf.
  • 18. Horwart B, Mallinguh E, Fogarassy C (2018) Designing business solutions for plastic waste management to enhance circular transitions in Kenya. Sustain, 10:1664.    
  • 19. Gu F, Guo J, Zhang W, et al. (2017) From waste plastics to industrial raw materials: A life cycle assessment of mechanical plastic recycling practice based on a real-world case study. Sci Total Environ 601–602: 1192–1207
  • 20. Yousif E, Hasan A (2015) Photostabilization of poly(vinyl chloride) – Still on the run. J Taibah Univ Sci 9: 421–448.    
  • 21. Cao Q, Yuan G, Yin L, et.al. (2016) Morphological characteristics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dechlorination during pyrolysis process: Influence of PVC content and heating rate. Waste Manage 58: 241–249.
  • 22. Sadat-Shojai M, Bakhshandeh G (2011) Recycling of PVC wastes. Polym Degrad Stabil 96: 404–415    
  • 23. Plinke E, Wenk N, Wolff G, et al. (2000) Mechanical recycling of PVC wastes, Study for DG XI of the European Commission (B4-3040/98/000821/MAR/E3).
  • 24. Vinylplus, PVC recycling technologies, www.vinylplus.eu.
  • 25. Turner A (2018) Black plastics: Linear and circular economies, hazardous additives and marine pollution. Environ Int 117: 308–318.    
  • 26. Samsonek J, Puype F (2013) Occurrence of brominated flame retardants in black thermo cups and selected kitchen utensils purchased on the European market. Food Ad & Contaminants. 30: 1976–1986.
  • 27. Morandin M, Heyne S, Jilvero H, et al. Thermochemical recycling of plastics for production of chemical intermediates at a Swedish chemical complex site, Proceedings The 29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 2016. Available from: http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/251393/local_251393.pdf.
  • 28. Al-Salem SM, Evangelisti S, Lettieri P (2014) Life-cycle-assessment of alternative technologies for municipal solid waste and plastic solid waste management in the Greatr London area. Chem Eng J 244: 391–402.    
  • 29. Achilias DS, Antonakou EV (2015) Chemical and thermochemical recycling of polymers from waste electrical and electronic equipment, 37–61. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/recycling-materials-based-on-environmentally-friendly-techniques/chemical-and-thermochemical-recycling-of-polymers-from-waste-electrical-and-electronic-equipment.
  • 30. Kaminsky W, Kim JS (1998) Pyrolysis of mixed plastics into aromatics. J Anal Appl Prol 51: 127–134.
  • 31. Lee HW, Park YK (2018) Catalytic pyrolysis of polyethylene and polypropylene over desilicated beta and AI-MSU-F. Catal 8: 501.    
  • 32. Sophonrat N, Sandstrom L, Zaini IN, et al. (2018) Stepwise pyrolysis of mixed plastics and paper for separation of oxygenate and hydrocarbon condensates. Appl Energy 229: 314–325.    
  • 33. Gaurh P, Pramanik H (2018) Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste propylene for recovery of petroleum range hydrocarbon. Inter J Resear Sci & Engin CHEMCON Special Issue: March 2018: 228–233.
  • 34. Cao Q, Yuan G, Yin L, et.al. (2016) Morphological characteristics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dechlorination during pyrolysis process: Influence of PVC content and heating rate. Waste Manage 58: 241–249.    
  • 35. Bertau M, Offersmanns H, Plass L, et al. Methanol: The Basic Chemical and Energy Feedstock of the Future. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 2014.
  • 36. Lee RP, Keller F, Meyer B (2017) A concept to support the transformation from a linear to circular carbon economy: net zero emissions, resource efficiency and conservation through a coupling of the energy, chemical and waste management sectors. Clean Energy 1: 102–113.    
  • 37. Lopez G, Artetxe M, Amutio M, et.al. (2018) Recent advances in the gasification of waste plastics. A critical overview. Renew Sust Energy Rev 82: 576–596.    
  • 38. Saad JM, Nahil MA, Williams PT (2015) Influence of process conditions on syngas production from the thermal processing of waste high density polyethylene. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 113: 35–40.    
  • 39. Lee U, Chung JN, Ingley HA (2014) High-temperature steam gasification of municipal solid waste, rubber, plastic and wood. Energy Fuels 28: 4573–87.    
  • 40. Wu C, Williams PT (2010) Pyrolysis-gasification of post-consumer municipal solid plastic waste for hydrogen production. Int J of Hydrogen Energy 35: 949–957.    
  • 41. Wilson D, Velis C (2015) Waste management-still a global challenge in the 21st century: an evidence based call for an action. Waste Manage Res 33: 1049–1051.    
  • 42. Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (1990–2016). EPA 430-R-18-003 https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/inventory-us-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-sinks.
  • 43. The Potential Contribution of Waste Management to a Low Carbon Economy (2015) EUNOMIA https://zerowasteeurope.eu/downloads/the-potential-contribution-of-waste-management-to-a-low-carbon-economy/.
  • 44. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) (2015). Global Waste Management Outlook. Wilson DC (Ed) Authors: Wilson, D.C., Rodic, L, Modak P, et.al. UNEP International Environment Technology Centre: Osaka, September 2015. Available at: http://web.unep.org/ourplanet/september-2015/unep-publications (Accessed January 21, 2019)
  • 45. Ritzen F, Sandstrom GO (2017) Barriers to the circular economy-integration of perspectives and domains. Procedia CIRP 64: 7–12.    

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved