Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Chlorination and ultraviolet disinfection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

This study determined the effectiveness of chlorine, UV and combination of UV/chlorine in inactivating antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), as well as potential repair of these bacteria following disinfection processes in drinking water. Previous studies have assessed the efficacy of UV disinfection in inactivating ARBs, however, most of these studies have focused on wastewater treatment applications. The use of chlorine and UV disinfection at typical drinking water industry doses was found to not completely eliminate the resistance genes. Using 30 mg/min/L of chlorine, the inactivation of tet(A), bla- TEM1 , sul1, mph(A) was 1.7-log, while a UV fluence of 200 mJ/cm 2 only resulted in a reduction of up to 1.2-log of these genes. This suggests that these genes can continue to be present in distribution systems even following disinfection. On the other hand, the application of sequential UV disinfection followed by chlorination significantly reduced the ARGs and had synergistic effects compared to single disinfectant use, with a resulting synergy in the inactivation achieved (log units) ranging between 0.01 and 0.62-log across the tested ARGs . The ARBs also demonstrated the potential for re-growth following chlorination up to 5 mg/L and UV disinfection of up to 10 mJ/cm 2 under the conditions of this study.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords disinfection; antibiotic resistant bacteria; antibiotic resistance genes; UV; chlorine; sequential disinfection

Citation: R. Destiani, M.R. Templeton. Chlorination and ultraviolet disinfection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in drinking water. AIMS Environmental Science, 2019, 6(3): 222-241. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2019.3.222

References

  • 1. Jia S, Shi P, Hu Q, et al. (2015) Bacterial Community Shift Drives Antibiotic Resistance Promotion during Drinking Water Chlorination. Environ Sci Technol 49: 12271–12279.    
  • 2. Destiani R, Templeton MR (2019) The antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic bacteria in tap waters in london. Water Sci Technol: Water Supply 19: 179–190.
  • 3. Su HC, Liu YS, Pan CG, et al. (2018) Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community changes in drinking water treatment system: From drinking water source to tap water. Sci. Total Environ 616: 453–461.
  • 4. Guo MT, Yuan QB, Yang J (2015) Distinguishing effects of ultraviolet exposure and chlorination on the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 49: 5771–5778.    
  • 5. Lin W, Li S, Zhang S, et al. (2016) Reduction in horizontal transfer of conjugative plasmid by UV irradiation and low-level chlorination. Water Res 91: 331–338.    
  • 6. Stokes HW, Gillings MR (2011) Gene flow, mobile genetic elements and the recruitment of antibiotic resistance genes into Gram-negative pathogens. FEMS Microbiol Rev 35: 790–819.    
  • 7. Leungtongkam U, Thummeepak R, Tasanapak K, et al. (2018) Acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in association with conjugative plasmid or class 1 integrons of Acinetobacter baumannii. PLoS One 13: e0208468.    
  • 8. Virto R, Mañas P, Alvarez I, et al. (2005) Membrane damage and microbial inactivation by chlorine in the absence and presence of a chlorine-demanding substrate. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 5022–5028.    
  • 9. Zhang Y, Zhuang Y, Geng J, et al. (2015) Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by chlorination and sequential UV/chlorination disinfection. Sci Total Environ 512: 125–132.
  • 10. Zhuang Y, Ren H, Geng J, et al. (2015) Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater by chlorination, ultraviolet, and ozonation disinfection. Environ Sci Pollu Res 22: 7037–7044.    
  • 11. Huang JJ, Hu HY, Tang F, et al. (2011) Inactivation and reactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by chlorination in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water Res 45: 2775–2781.    
  • 12. Templeton MR, Oddy F, Leung W, et al. (2009) Chlorine and UV disinfection of ampicillin and trimethoprim-resistant Escherichia coli Can Ci Eng 36: 889–894.
  • 13. Guo MT, Yuan QB, Yang J (2013) Ultraviolet reduction of erythromycin and tetracycline resistant heterotrophic bacteria and their resistance genes in municipal wastewater. Chemosphere 93: 2864–2868.    
  • 14. Jia S, Shi P, Hu Q, et al. (2015) Bacterial Community Shift Drives Antibiotic Resistance Promotion during Drinking Water Chlorination. Environ Sci Technol 49: 12271–12279.    
  • 15. Guo MT, Yuan QB, Yang J (2013) Microbial selectivity of UV treatment on antibiotic-resistant heterotrophic bacteria in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water Res 47: 6388–6394.    
  • 16. Kowalski W (2010) Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation handbook: UVGI for air and surface disinfection. Springer science & business media.
  • 17. Vankerckhoven E, Verbessem B, Crauwels S, et al. (2011) Exploring the potential synergistic effects of chemical disinfectants and UV on the inactivation of free-living bacteria and treatment of biofilms in a pilot-scale system. Water Sci Technol 64: 1247–1253.    
  • 18. Koivunen J, Heinonen-Tanski H (2005) Inactivation of enteric microorganisms with chemical disinfectants, UV irradiation and combined chemical/UV treatments. Water Res 39: 1519–1526.    
  • 19. Armstrong JL, Calomiris JJ, Seidler RJ (1982) Selection of antibiotic-resistant standard plate count bacteria during water treatment. Appl Environ Microbiol 44: 308–316.
  • 20. Shang C, Blatchley ER (2001) Chlorination of pure bacterial cultures in aqueous solution. Water Res 35: 244–254.    
  • 21. Cherchi C, Gu AZ (2011) Effect of bacterial growth stage on resistance to chlorine disinfection Water Sci Technol 64: 7–13.
  • 22. Delcour AH (2009) Outer membrane permeability and antibiotic resistance. BBA-Proteins Proteom 1974: 808–816.
  • 23. Nikaido H (2003) Molecular Basis of Bacterial Outer Membrane Permeability Revisited. Microbiol Mol Bio Rev 67: 593–656.    
  • 24. Shi P, Jia S, Zhang XX, et al. (2013) Metagenomic insights into chlorination effects on microbial antibiotic resistance in drinking water. Water Res 47: 111–120.    
  • 25. Khan S, Beattie TK, Knapp CW (2016) Relationship between antibiotic- and disinfectant- resistance profiles in bacteria harvested from tap water. Chemosphere 152: 132–141.    
  • 26. Huang JJ, Hu HY, Wu YH, et al. (2013) Effect of chlorination and ultraviolet disinfection on tetA-mediated tetracycline resistance of Escherichia coli. Chemosphere 90: 2247–2253.    
  • 27. McKinney CW, Pruden A (2012) Ultraviolet Disinfection of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Their Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Water and Wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 46: 13393−13400.
  • 28. Rizzo L, Fiorentino A, Anselmo A (2013) Advanced treatment of urban wastewater by UV radiation: Effect on antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains. Chemosphere 92: 171–176.
  • 29. Chang JCH, Ossoff SF, Lobe DC, et al. (1985) UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol 49: 1361–1365.
  • 30. Destiani R, Templeton MR, Kowalski W (2017) Relative Ultraviolet Sensitivity of Selected Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Waterborne Bacteria. Environ Eng Sci 35: 770–774.
  • 31. Douki T, Cadet J (2001) Individual determination of the yield of the main UV-induced dimeric pyrimidine photoproducts in DNA suggests a high mutagenicity of CC photolesions. Biochemistry 40: 2495–2501.    
  • 32. Yoon Y, Chung HJ, Yoong D, et al. (2017) Inactivation efficiency of plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes during water treatment with chlorine. UV, and UV/H2O2, Water Res 123: 783–793.    
  • 33. Dodd MC (2012) Potential impacts of disinfection processes on elimination and deactivation of antibiotic resistance genes during water and wastewater treatment. J Environ Monit 14: 1754–1771.    
  • 34. Cho M, Kim JH, Yoon J (2006) Investigating synergism during sequential inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores with several disinfectants. Water Res 40: 2011–2920.
  • 35. Higgins MJ, Chen YC, Murthy SN, et al. (2007) Reactivation and growth of non-culturable indicator bacteria in anaerobically digested biosolids after centrifuge dewatering. Water Res 41: 665–673.    
  • 36. Quek PH, Hu J (2008) Indicators for photoreactivation and dark repair studies following ultraviolet disinfection. J Ind Microbiol Biot 35: 533–541.    
  • 37. Zimmer JL, Slawson RM (2002) Potential Repair of Escherichia coli DNA following Exposure to UV Radiation from Both Medium- and Low-Pressure UV Sources Used in Drinking Water Treatment Potential Repair of Escherichia coli DNA following Exposure to UV Radiation from Both Medium- and Lo. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 3293–3299.    
  • 38. Zimmer-Thomas JL, Slawson RM, Huck PM (2007) A comparison of DNA repair and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 following exposure to both low- and medium-pressure UV irradiation. J Water Heal 5: 407–415.    
  • 39. Xi C, Zhang Y, Marrs CF, et al. (2009) Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in drinking water treatment and distribution systems. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 5714–5718.    

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved