Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Variability trends in the daily air temperatures series
Running head: Variability trends prague

1 Institute of Geophysics, Czech Academy of Sciences, 141-31 Praha, the Czech Republic
2 Department of Geophysics, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Hungary

An abstract is a brief of the paper; the abstract should not contain references, the text of the abstract section should be in 12 point normal Times New Roman. Temperature variability was investigated for the near surface air temperature time series measured at Sporilov station (Prague, the Czech Republic) between 2003–2016. The interpretation of the Sporilov daily air temperature averages was completed with the results of the long-term observation at the Prague Klementinum station (daily averages, daily maximum and daily minimum temperatures). Variability was detected by the method of absolute difference of temperature anomalies between two adjacent discrete time periods. The results demonstrated increasing warming trends for all investigated temperature time series and a general reduction of the diurnal temperature range. The range of temperature oscillations reduces also on the annual scale. The temperature variability has shown general decline, however the velocity of the detected variability decreasing trend is significantly minor in comparison with the previously investigated period 1994–2001. The analysis also revealed that the occurrence of both hottest and coldest extremes have been increasing during the investigated period at both stations.
  Article Metrics


1. Hansen J, Ruedy R, Sato M, et al. (2010) Global surface temperature change. Rev Geophys 48.

2. Diffenbaugh NS, Scherer M (2011) Observational and model evidence of global emergence of permanent, unprecedented heat in the 20th and 21st centuries. Climatic Change 107: 615–624.    

3. Collins M, Knutti R, Arblaster J, et al. (2013) Long-term climate change: Projections, commitments and irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013. The physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, et al Eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1029–1136.

4. Knutson TR, Zeng F, Wittenberg AT (2013) Multimodel assessment of regional surface temperature trends: CMIP3 and CMIP5 twentieth-century simulations. J Climate 26: 8709–8743.    

5. Fyfe JC, Gillet NP, Thompson DWJ (2010) Comparing variability and trends in observed and modeled global mean surface temperature. Geophys Res Lett 37.

6. Thompson DWJ, Barnes EA, Deser C, et al. (2015). Quantifying the role of internal climatic variability in future climate trends. J Climate 28: 6443–6456.    

7. Evrendilek F (2016) Insights on the global climatic changes and their discernible impacts. J Earth Sci Climatic Change 7: e113.

8. Thornton PK, Ericksen PJ, Herrero M, et al. (2014) Climate variability and vulnerability to climate change: a review. Glob Change Biol 20: 3313–3328.    

9. Meehl GA, Stocker TF, Collins WD, et al. (2007) Global Climate Projections. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning MA, et al. (Eds.) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA.

10. Knutson TR,, Ploshay JJ (2016) Detection of anthropogenic influence on a summertime heat stress index. Climatic Change 138: 25–39.    

11. Angelil O, Stone D, Wehner M (2017) An independent assessment of anthropogenic attribution statements for recent extreme temperature and rainfall events. J Climate, 30: 5–16.    

12. Van Oldenborgh GJS, Drijfhout A, van Ulden R, et al. (2009) Western Europe is warming much faster than expected, Climate of the Past 5:1–12.

13. Fischer EM, Rajczak J, Schär C (2012) Changes in European summer temperature variability revisited. Geophys Res Lett 39.

14. Lépi E, Pasanen L (2017) Observed regional climate variability during the last 50 years in Reindeer Herding cooperatives in Finnish Fell Lapland, Climate 5: 81.

15. Xu Z, Tang Y, Connor T, et al. (2017) Climate variability and trends at a national scale. Sci Rep 7: 3258.    

16. Huntingford C, Jones PD, Livina VN, et al. (2013) No increase in global temperature variability despite changing regional patterns. Nature 500: 327–30.    

17. Michaels PJ, Balling Jr RC, Vose RS, et al. (1998) Analysis of trends in the variability of daily and monthly historical temperature measurements. Clim Res 10, 27–33.

18. Hansen J, Sato M, Ruedi R (2012) Perception of climate change. Proc.National Acad Sci USA 109; E2415–E2423.

19. Karl TR, Nicholls N, Ghazi A (1999) CLIVAR/GSOS/WMO workshop on indices and indicators for climate extremes. Workshop summary. Clim Change, 42: 3–7.    

20. Bodri L, Cermak V (2003) High frequency variability in recent climate and North Atlantic oscillation. Theor.Appl.Climatol, 74: 33–40.    

21. Bodri L, Cermak V, Kresl M (2005) Trends in precipitation variability: Prague (the Czech Republic). Climatic Change, 72: 151–170.    

22. Alexander L, Perkins S (2013) Debate heating up over changes in climate variability. Environ Res Lett, 8: 041001.    

23. Cermak V, Safanda J, Kresl M, et al. (2000) Recent climate warming: surface air temperature series and geothermal evidence. Studia geoph et geod 44: 430–441.    

24. Cermak V, Bodri L, Safanda J, et al. (2014) Ground-air temperature tracking and multi-years cycles in the subsurface temperature time series at geothermal climate-change observatory. Stud Geoph Geod 58: 403–424.    

25. Cermak V, Bodri L, Dedecek P, et al. (2016) Eleven years of ground-air temperature tracking over different land cover types. Int J Climatol.

26. Fiedler M, Magr J (2001) Available from: https://www.fiedler-magr.cz.

27. Czech hydrometeorological institute, Data available from: http://portal.chmi.cz/historicka- data/pocasi/praha-klementinum.

28. Jones PD, Lister DD, Osborn TJ, et al. (2012) Hemispheric and large-scale land-surface air temperature variations: an extensive revision and update to 2010. J Geophys Res: Atmospheres 117.

29. Harris I, Jones PD, Osborn TJ, et al. (2014) Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations–the CRU TS3.10 Datase. Int J Climatol 34: 623–642.    

30. Trenberth KE, Jones PD, Ambenje P, et al. (2007) Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. Chapter 3 in S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, et al. (Eds), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA, 987.

31. Beranova R, Huth R (2005) Long-term changes in the heat island of Prague under different synoptic conditions. Theoret Applied Climatology 82: 113–118.    

32. Brazdil R, Budikova M (1999) An urban bias in air temperature fluctuation at the Klementinum, Prague, the Czech Republic. Atmos Enviro 33: 4211–4217.    

33. Alexander LV, Zhang X, Peterson TC, et al. (2006) Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J Geophys Res 111.

34. Available from: http://climatechange.lta.org/climate-impacts/air-temperatures/.

35. Zhou C, Wang K (2016) Coldest temperature extreme monotonically increased and hottest extreme oscillated over northern Hemisphere Land during last 114 years. Sci Rep 6: 25721.    

36. Dong BW, Sutton RT, Shaffrey L (2017) Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Clim Dynam 48.

37. Stone DA, Weaver AJ (2003) Factors contributing to diurnal temperature range trends in twentieth and twenty-first century simulation of CCCma-coupled model. Clim Dynam 20: 435–445.    

38. Davy R, Esau I, Chernokulsky A, et al. (2017) Diurnal asymmetry to the observed global warming. Int J Climatol 37: 79-93.    

39. Del Rio S, Fraile R, Herrero L, et al. (2007) Analysis of recent trends in mean maximum and minimum temperatures in a region of the NW of Spain (Castilla y Leon). Theor Appl Climatol 90: 1–12.    

40. Hartmann DL, Klein Tank AMG, Rusticucci M, et al. (2013) Observations: Atmosphere and Surface. In: Stocker T F, Qin D, Plattner G-K, et al., (Eds) Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA.

41. Wild M, Ohmura A, Makowski K (2007) Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming, Geophys Res Lett 34: L04702.

42. Makowski K, Wild M, Ohmura A (2008) Diurnal temperature range over Europe between 1950 and 2005. Atmos Chem Phys 8: 6483–6498.    

43. McGuffie K, Henderson-Sellers A, Holbrook N, et al. (1999) Assessing simulations of daily temperatures and precipitation variability with global climate models for present and enhanced greenhouse climates. Int J Climatol 19: 1–26.    

44. Stouffer RJ, Wetherald RT (2007) Changes of variability in response to increasing Greenhouse Gases. Part I: Temperature. J Climate 20: 5455–5467.

45. Christidis N, Jones GS, Stott PA (2015) Dramatically increasing chance of extremely hot summers since the 2003 European heatwave. Nature Clim Change 5: 46–50.    

46. Stott PA, Stone DA, Allen M R (2004) Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature 432: 610–614.    

47. Robine JM, Cheung SL, Le Roy S, et al. (2008) Death toll exceeded 70,000 in Europe during the summer of 2003. C R Biol 331(2): 171–178.

48. Available from: https://www.climate.gov/news-features/event-tracker/summer-heat-wave-arrives-europe.

49. Muthers S, Laschewski G, Matzarakis A (2017) The summers 2003 and 2015 in south-west Germany: Heat waves and heat-related mortality in the context of climate change. Atmosphere 8: 224–236.    

50. Brönnimann S, Luterbacher J, Ewen T, et al. (2008) Climate variability and extremes during the past 100 years (Advances in Global Change Research). Springer (London, Dordrecht).

51. Nicholls N, Gruza GV, Jouzel J, et al. (1996) Observed climate variability and change. In: Houghton J T, Meiro Filho L G, Callendar B A, et al. (Eds.), Climate change 1995, The science of climate change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 133–192.

52. World Climate Research Program (WCRP: www clivar.org).

53. Klein Tank AMG, Zwiers FW, Zhang X (2009) Guidelines on analysis of extremes in a changing climate in support of informed decisions for adaptation. Climate data and monitoring.

54. Available from: https://www.climate-lab-book.ac.uk/2017/european-heat-extremes

55. Available from: https://atmos.washington.edu/~salathe/AR4_Climate_Models/

56. Simolo C, Brunetti M, Maugeri M, et al. (2011) Evolution of extreme temperatures in a warming climate. Geophys Res Lett 38: 6.

57. Twardosz R, Kossowska-Cezak U, Pelech S (2016) Extremely cold winter months in Europe (1951–2010). Acta Geophys 64(6): 2609–2629.

58. Twardosz R, Kossowska-Cezak U (2016) Exceptionally cold and mild winters in Europe (1951–2010). Theor Appl Climatol 125: 399–411.    

59. Russo S, Sillmann J, Fischer M (2015) Top ten European heat waves since 1950 and their occurrence in the coming decades. Environ Res Lett 10: 124003.    

60. Spinoni J, Lakatos M, Szentimrey T, et al. (2015) Heat and cold waves trends in the Carpathian Region from 1961 to 2010. Int J Climatol 35: 4197–4209.    

61. Capozzi V, Budillon G (2017) Detection of heat and cold waves in Montevergine time series (1884–2015), Adv Geosci, 44: 35–51.

62. Brown SJ, Caesar J, Ferro CAT (2008) Global changes in extreme daily temperature since 1950. J Geophys Res, Atmosphere, 113: D05115.

63. Sillmann J, Kharin VV, Zhang X, et al. (2013) Climate extremes indices in the CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: Part 1. Model evaluation in the present climate. J Geophys Res, Atmosphere, 118: 1716–1733.

64. Donat MG, Alexander LV, Yang H, et al. (2013) Updated analyses of temperature and precipitation extreme indices since the beginning of the twentieth century: The HadEX2 dataset. J Geophys Res, Atmospheres, 118: 2098–2118.    

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved