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Large scale photovoltaics and the future energy system requirement

Lappeenranta University of Technology, Yliopistonkatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta, Finland

Special Issues: Photovoltaic system design

Supported by conducive policy and technology cost decline, PV capacity addition is increasing rapidly. The capacity addition is forecasted to continue at a faster rate over the coming decades. With such an increase, it is important to ask about system requirement to effectively integrate large system into a power grid. This paper presents the analysis of literature data in order to clarify system requirement for large PV integration. The review shows that the most important challenges of large-scale PV penetration are matching, variability, uncertainty and system adequacy. To overcome these challenges, several enabling techniques, such as energy storage, curtailment, transmission interconnection, demand response, resource complementarities, increased grid flexibility, improved forecasting, geographic distribution of generation resources, were among the most discussed by various researcher. A closer look at some systematic studies shows that developing theoretical framework for the future system is the best way to guide the smooth development of an effective and secure system. This argument is based on the observation that (i) the role and importance of one technology, for instance specific storage technology, may change as VRE penetration increases; (ii) the increase in use of one application decreases the importance of the other; (iii) the use of some of the discussed solutions may depend on level of penetration as they also depend on season. Thus, it is important to design the system based on a criteria formulated with the understanding of system level science/theoretical framework.
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Keywords photovoltaic; curtailment; penetration-curtailment-storage nexus; demand response; system adequacy; balancing

Citation: A. A. Solomon. Large scale photovoltaics and the future energy system requirement. AIMS Energy, 2019, 7(5): 600-618. doi: 10.3934/energy.2019.5.600

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