Research article

Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits among children and adults in Casablanca, Morocco

  • Received: 21 November 2020 Accepted: 26 February 2021 Published: 22 March 2021
  • This study presents the relationships between ambient air pollutants and morbidity and emergency department visits among children and adults performed in Great Casablanca, the most populated and economic region in Morocco. This research was analyzed using conditional Poisson model for the period 2011–2013. In the period of study, the daily average concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10 in Casablanca were 209.4 µg/m3, 61 µg/m3, 113.2 µg/m3 and 75.1 µg/m3, respectively. In children less than 5 years old, risk of asthma could be increased until 12% per 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2, PM10, SO2 and O3. In children over 5 years and adults, an increase of 10 µg/m3 air pollutant can cause an increase until 3% and 4% in respiratory consultations and acute respiratory infection, respectively. Similarly, impact on emergency department visits due to respiratory and cardiac illness was established. Our results suggest a not negligible impact on morbidity of outdoor air pollution by NO2, SO2, O3, and PM10.

    Citation: Chakib Nejjari, Abdelghafour Marfak, Ahmed Rguig, Abderrahmane Maaroufi, Ihssane El Marouani, Abderrafii El Haloui, Bouchra El Johra, Rachid Ouahabi, Rachid Moulki, Amina Idrissi Azami, Youness El Achhab. Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits among children and adults in Casablanca, Morocco[J]. AIMS Public Health, 2021, 8(2): 285-302. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2021022

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  • This study presents the relationships between ambient air pollutants and morbidity and emergency department visits among children and adults performed in Great Casablanca, the most populated and economic region in Morocco. This research was analyzed using conditional Poisson model for the period 2011–2013. In the period of study, the daily average concentrations of SO2, NO2, O3 and PM10 in Casablanca were 209.4 µg/m3, 61 µg/m3, 113.2 µg/m3 and 75.1 µg/m3, respectively. In children less than 5 years old, risk of asthma could be increased until 12% per 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2, PM10, SO2 and O3. In children over 5 years and adults, an increase of 10 µg/m3 air pollutant can cause an increase until 3% and 4% in respiratory consultations and acute respiratory infection, respectively. Similarly, impact on emergency department visits due to respiratory and cardiac illness was established. Our results suggest a not negligible impact on morbidity of outdoor air pollution by NO2, SO2, O3, and PM10.


    Abbreviations

    UARI

    Upper Acute Respiratory Infection

    LARI

    lower acute respiratory infection

    PN

    Pneumonia

    SPN

    Severe Pneumonia

    ST

    Sore Throat

    VSD

    Very Serious Diseases

    RC

    Respiratory Consultations (RC)

    ARD

    Acute Respiratory Disease

    EDVs

    Emergency Department Visits

    WHO

    World Health Organization

    GC

    Great Casablanca

    ESR

    Exceeding Standard Ratio

    COPD

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    加载中

    Acknowledgments



    We would like to thank the Mohammed VI Foundation for Environmental Protection for its support of this study and for the efforts playing to sensitize and educate Moroccan citizens to raise awareness on the protection of the environment.

    Availability of data and materials



    The datasets analyzed during the current study are not publicly available due to institutional data sharing policies but are available on reasonable request.

    Authors' contributions



    C. Nejjari developed the study concept and aims and supervised the project. A. Marfak carried out the statistical modeling of the pollution-health effects and co-supervised and wrote the paper. A. Rguig and A. Maaroufi supervised the clinical data collection. R. Ouahabi, R. Moulki and A. Idrissi-Azam provided the clinical data. I. ElMarouani and A. ElHaloui coordinated meetings and discussions throughout the study period until the finalization of the paper. B. Eljohra provided the metrological and air pollution data. Y. El Achhab contributed to the analysis, interpretation and the writing of the paper. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

    Conflict of interest



    The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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