Research article

Effect of garlic and onion extract chitosan nanoparticles on selected intestinal bacterial flora in indigenous rainbow rooster chicken in Kenya

  • Received: 18 January 2021 Accepted: 07 April 2021 Published: 22 April 2021
  • Bacterial microbes play a vital role in the nutrition and health of birds. Food passaging through the gastrointestinal tract of poultry favored microflora that have rapid growth and can adhering to the mucosal wall. The caeca are ideal habitats for diverse bacteria with effect on the host nutrition and health. Antibiotics in poultry for therapeutic and as growth promotor can decrease the number of most susceptible bacterial communities and enhance the growth of resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of garlic and onion extract chitosan nanoparticles on the intestinal microflora of Rainbow Rooster Indigenous Chicken in Kenya in which a total of 18 chickens were used with 2 chickens drawn from each of the 9 groups and both caecum and jejunum content sampled with a total of 36 samples. The chickens were treated with Chitosan and Aqueous extracts of Garlic and Onion (CHIAGO), Chitosan with total Phenol, Ajoene rich extract (CHITPA) nanoparticles, and Chitosan Solution (CHISOLN) all at 5% and 10% and 1 g and 0.5 g Fosbac (Antibiotic) were applied orally to the chickens twice a week for 8 weeks. About 1.5 g of caecum and jejunum contents for micro-organisms Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), Bifidobactreum bifidium (B. bifidium) from caecum and L. acidophilus from jejunum were analyzed at 8th week of the treatment using conventional PCR to optimize bacteria 16S rRNA gene specific bands and qPCR for the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was determined. Lactobacillus acidophilus, E. coli , S. typhi, C. jejuni from caecum and L. acidophilus from jejunum indicated specific bands in 1.2% agarose gel. The qPCR revealed primers efficiency in most of the assay with exception of the jejunum L. acidophilus assay. There was a significant differences among the treatments for L. acidophilus (p < 0.0001), E. coli (p < 0.0001), S. typhi (p < 0.0001), C. jejuni (p < 0.1059) in caecum and jejunum L. acidophilus at (p ≤ 0.0001) for 16S rRNA gene copy numbers µg/µl DNA in 1.5 g of caecum and jejunum content. The results indicated normal percentage for caecum L. acidophilus to jejunium L. acidophilus at 96.65–87.63%, 90.27% to 35% was shown in L. acidophilus to E. coli, L. acidophilus to C. jejuni was 99.97% to 95.94% and low percentage of L. acidophilus to S. typhi 16S rRNA gene copy numbers after the treatment with CHITPA and CHIAGO. Garlic and onion extract chitosan nanoparticles prepared revealed the presence of selected commensal bacteria and acceptable percentage for caecum L. acidophilus to E. coli and C. jejuni in intestine of Rainbow Rooster Chicken.

    Citation: Viviana Imbua Levi Enoka, Gideon Mutie Kikuvi, Perpetual Wangui Ndung'u. Effect of garlic and onion extract chitosan nanoparticles on selected intestinal bacterial flora in indigenous rainbow rooster chicken in Kenya[J]. AIMS Molecular Science, 2021, 8(2): 98-116. doi: 10.3934/molsci.2021008

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  • Bacterial microbes play a vital role in the nutrition and health of birds. Food passaging through the gastrointestinal tract of poultry favored microflora that have rapid growth and can adhering to the mucosal wall. The caeca are ideal habitats for diverse bacteria with effect on the host nutrition and health. Antibiotics in poultry for therapeutic and as growth promotor can decrease the number of most susceptible bacterial communities and enhance the growth of resistant bacteria. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of garlic and onion extract chitosan nanoparticles on the intestinal microflora of Rainbow Rooster Indigenous Chicken in Kenya in which a total of 18 chickens were used with 2 chickens drawn from each of the 9 groups and both caecum and jejunum content sampled with a total of 36 samples. The chickens were treated with Chitosan and Aqueous extracts of Garlic and Onion (CHIAGO), Chitosan with total Phenol, Ajoene rich extract (CHITPA) nanoparticles, and Chitosan Solution (CHISOLN) all at 5% and 10% and 1 g and 0.5 g Fosbac (Antibiotic) were applied orally to the chickens twice a week for 8 weeks. About 1.5 g of caecum and jejunum contents for micro-organisms Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi), Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), Bifidobactreum bifidium (B. bifidium) from caecum and L. acidophilus from jejunum were analyzed at 8th week of the treatment using conventional PCR to optimize bacteria 16S rRNA gene specific bands and qPCR for the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was determined. Lactobacillus acidophilus, E. coli , S. typhi, C. jejuni from caecum and L. acidophilus from jejunum indicated specific bands in 1.2% agarose gel. The qPCR revealed primers efficiency in most of the assay with exception of the jejunum L. acidophilus assay. There was a significant differences among the treatments for L. acidophilus (p < 0.0001), E. coli (p < 0.0001), S. typhi (p < 0.0001), C. jejuni (p < 0.1059) in caecum and jejunum L. acidophilus at (p ≤ 0.0001) for 16S rRNA gene copy numbers µg/µl DNA in 1.5 g of caecum and jejunum content. The results indicated normal percentage for caecum L. acidophilus to jejunium L. acidophilus at 96.65–87.63%, 90.27% to 35% was shown in L. acidophilus to E. coli, L. acidophilus to C. jejuni was 99.97% to 95.94% and low percentage of L. acidophilus to S. typhi 16S rRNA gene copy numbers after the treatment with CHITPA and CHIAGO. Garlic and onion extract chitosan nanoparticles prepared revealed the presence of selected commensal bacteria and acceptable percentage for caecum L. acidophilus to E. coli and C. jejuni in intestine of Rainbow Rooster Chicken.



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    Acknowledgments



    This research was funded by Pan African University Institute of Basic Sciences, Technology and Innovation, Nairobi-Kenya. Management of PAUSTI for funding the study, PAUSTI and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) for the provision of research facilities and conducive work environment and above all, allocation of high profile supervisors for academic guidance and laboratory manager for their enormous contribution in making this study a reality.

    Conflict of interest



    The authors declare no conflict of interest in this manuscript.

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