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Sex steroid hormone receptors, their ligands, and nuclear and non-nuclear pathways

  • Received: 27 February 2015 Accepted: 04 June 2015 Published: 08 June 2015
  • The ability of a cell to respond to a particular hormone depends on the presence of specific receptors for those hormones. Once the hormone has bound to its receptor, and following structural and biochemical modifications to the receptor, it separates from cytoplasmic chaperone proteins, thereby exposing the nuclear localization sequences that result in the activation of the receptor and initiation of the biological actions of the hormone on the target cell. In addition, recent work has demonstrated new pathways of steroid signaling through orphan and cell surface receptors that contribute to more rapid, “non-nuclear” or non-transcriptional effects of steroid hormones, often involving G-protein-mediated pathways. This review will summarize some of these studies for estrogens, androgens and progestins.

    Citation: Valentina Contrò, John R. Basile, Patrizia Proia. Sex steroid hormone receptors, their ligands, and nuclear and non-nuclear pathways[J]. AIMS Molecular Science, 2015, 2(3): 294-310. doi: 10.3934/molsci.2015.3.294

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  • The ability of a cell to respond to a particular hormone depends on the presence of specific receptors for those hormones. Once the hormone has bound to its receptor, and following structural and biochemical modifications to the receptor, it separates from cytoplasmic chaperone proteins, thereby exposing the nuclear localization sequences that result in the activation of the receptor and initiation of the biological actions of the hormone on the target cell. In addition, recent work has demonstrated new pathways of steroid signaling through orphan and cell surface receptors that contribute to more rapid, “non-nuclear” or non-transcriptional effects of steroid hormones, often involving G-protein-mediated pathways. This review will summarize some of these studies for estrogens, androgens and progestins.

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