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Antibody profiling reveals gender differences in response to SARS-COVID-2 infection

  • Received: 29 October 2021 Revised: 29 November 2021 Accepted: 20 December 2021 Published: 10 January 2022
  • The recent emergence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic and public health crisis. Detailed study of human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is the important topic for a successful treatment of this disease. Our study was aimed to characterize immune response on the level of antibody profiling in convalescent plasma of patients in Georgia. Antibodies against the following SARS-CoV-2 proteins were studied: nucleocapsid and various regions of spike (S) protein: S1, S2 and receptor binding domain (RBD). Convalescent plasma of patients 6–8 weeks after initial confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection were tested. Nearly 80% out of 162 patients studied showed presence of antibodies against nucleocapsid protein. The antibody response to three fragments of S protein was significantly less and varied in the range of 20–30%. Significantly more females as compared to males were producing antibodies against S1 fragment, whereas the difference between genders by the antibodies against nucleocapsid protein and RBD was statistically significant only by one-tailed Fisher exact test. There were no differences between the males and females by antibodies against S2 fragment. Thus, immune response against some viral antigens is stronger in females and we suggest that it could be one of the factors of less female fatality after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

    Citation: Lia Tsverava, Nazibrola Chitadze, Gvantsa Chanturia, Merab Kekelidze, David Dzneladze, Paata Imnadze, Amiran Gamkrelidze, Vincenzo Lagani, Zaza Khuchua, Revaz Solomonia. Antibody profiling reveals gender differences in response to SARS-COVID-2 infection[J]. AIMS Allergy and Immunology, 2022, 6(1): 6-13. doi: 10.3934/Allergy.2022002

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  • The recent emergence of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic and public health crisis. Detailed study of human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is the important topic for a successful treatment of this disease. Our study was aimed to characterize immune response on the level of antibody profiling in convalescent plasma of patients in Georgia. Antibodies against the following SARS-CoV-2 proteins were studied: nucleocapsid and various regions of spike (S) protein: S1, S2 and receptor binding domain (RBD). Convalescent plasma of patients 6–8 weeks after initial confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection were tested. Nearly 80% out of 162 patients studied showed presence of antibodies against nucleocapsid protein. The antibody response to three fragments of S protein was significantly less and varied in the range of 20–30%. Significantly more females as compared to males were producing antibodies against S1 fragment, whereas the difference between genders by the antibodies against nucleocapsid protein and RBD was statistically significant only by one-tailed Fisher exact test. There were no differences between the males and females by antibodies against S2 fragment. Thus, immune response against some viral antigens is stronger in females and we suggest that it could be one of the factors of less female fatality after SARS-CoV-2 infection.



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    Acknowledgments



    The work was supported by National Center for Disease Control, Tbilisi, Georgia and Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.

    Conflict of interest



    All authors declare no conflicts of interest in this paper.

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