Research article

Pellet diameter of Ganoderma lucidum in a repeated-batch fermentation for the trio total production of biomass-exopolysaccharide-endopolysaccharide and its anti-oral cancer beta-glucan response

  • Received: 12 June 2020 Accepted: 19 October 2020 Published: 22 October 2020
  • The pellet morphology and diameter range (DR) of Ganoderma lucidum were observed in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF) for the trio total production of biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and endopolysaccharide (ENS). Two factors were involved in RBF; broth replacement ratio (BRR: 60%, 75% and 90%) and broth replacement time point (BRTP: log, transition and stationary phase) in days. In RBF, 34.31 g/L of biomass favoured small-compact pellets with DR of 20.67 µm< d < 24.00 µm (75% BRR, day 11 of BRTP). EPS production of 4.34 g/L was prone to ovoid-starburst pellets with DR of 34.33 µm< d <35.67 µm (75% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). Meanwhile, the highest 2.43 g/L of ENS production favoured large-hollow pellets with DR of 34.00 µm< d < 38.67 µm (90% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). In addition, RBF successfully shortened the biomass-EPS–ENS fermentation period (31, 33 and 35 days) from batch to 5 days, in seven consecutive cycles of RBF. In a FTIR detection, β-glucan (BG) from EPS and ENS extracts were associated with β-glycosidic linkages (2925 cm−1, 1635 cm−1, 1077 cm−1, 920 cm−1 and 800 cm−1 wavelengths) with similar 1H NMR spectral behaviour (4.58, 3.87 and 3.81 ppm). Meanwhile, 4 mg/L of BG gave negative cytotoxic effects on normal gingival cell line (hGF) but induced antiproliferation (IC50 = 0.23 mg/mL) against cancerous oral Asian cellosaurus cell line (ORL-48). Together, this study proved that G. lucidum mycelial pellets could withstand seven cycles of long fermentation condition and possessed anti-oral cancer beta-glucan, which suits large-scale natural drug fermentation.

    Citation: Nur Raihan Abdullah, Faez Sharif, Nur Hafizah Azizan, Ismail Fitri Mohd Hafidz, Sugenendran Supramani, Siti Rokhiyah Ahmad Usuldin, Rahayu Ahmad, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad Wan-Mohtar. Pellet diameter of Ganoderma lucidum in a repeated-batch fermentation for the trio total production of biomass-exopolysaccharide-endopolysaccharide and its anti-oral cancer beta-glucan response[J]. AIMS Microbiology, 2020, 6(4): 379-400. doi: 10.3934/microbiol.2020023

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  • The pellet morphology and diameter range (DR) of Ganoderma lucidum were observed in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF) for the trio total production of biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and endopolysaccharide (ENS). Two factors were involved in RBF; broth replacement ratio (BRR: 60%, 75% and 90%) and broth replacement time point (BRTP: log, transition and stationary phase) in days. In RBF, 34.31 g/L of biomass favoured small-compact pellets with DR of 20.67 µm< d < 24.00 µm (75% BRR, day 11 of BRTP). EPS production of 4.34 g/L was prone to ovoid-starburst pellets with DR of 34.33 µm< d <35.67 µm (75% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). Meanwhile, the highest 2.43 g/L of ENS production favoured large-hollow pellets with DR of 34.00 µm< d < 38.67 µm (90% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). In addition, RBF successfully shortened the biomass-EPS–ENS fermentation period (31, 33 and 35 days) from batch to 5 days, in seven consecutive cycles of RBF. In a FTIR detection, β-glucan (BG) from EPS and ENS extracts were associated with β-glycosidic linkages (2925 cm−1, 1635 cm−1, 1077 cm−1, 920 cm−1 and 800 cm−1 wavelengths) with similar 1H NMR spectral behaviour (4.58, 3.87 and 3.81 ppm). Meanwhile, 4 mg/L of BG gave negative cytotoxic effects on normal gingival cell line (hGF) but induced antiproliferation (IC50 = 0.23 mg/mL) against cancerous oral Asian cellosaurus cell line (ORL-48). Together, this study proved that G. lucidum mycelial pellets could withstand seven cycles of long fermentation condition and possessed anti-oral cancer beta-glucan, which suits large-scale natural drug fermentation.


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    Abbreviation EPS: Exopolysaccharide; ENS: Endopolysaccharide; GL: ; g: Grams; L: Litre; mL: Millilitre; v/v: Volume per volume; PDA: Potato dextrose agar; RBF: Repeated batch fermentation; RPM: Revolutions per minute; µm: Micrometres; SSF: Solid state fermentation; SLF: Submerged liquid fermentation; BRTP: Broth replacement time point; BRR: Broth replacement ratio;
    Acknowledgment



    This work was supported by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia under the Southeast and South Asia and Taiwan Universities [SATU Joint Research Scheme] [RU Geran ST002-2020: Dr Wan-Mohtar] and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme [FRGS 19-140-0749: Dr Mohd Faez Sharif].

    Compliance with ethical standards



    The written article complies with ethical standards.

    Conflict of interest



    There is no conflict of interest for this journal article.

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