Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Spray deposition of piezoelectric polymer on plastic substrate for vibrational harvesting and force sensing applications

Department of Microelectronics, Technical University of Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

Special Issues: Advances in coating materials

Piezoelectric structures on flexible substrates are fabricated by using spray deposition of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film on conductive polymer, serving as electrode. The spray deposition conditions are optimized in term of uniform film with high piezoelectric phase content. It was found that the best piezoelectric dynamic and static response is obtained at solution with PVDF concentration 10 wt% sprayed at 70 ℃. The average roughness of the films is 12 nm and the β-phase with piezoelectric properties is 72%. The maximum generated voltage in energy harvesting (dynamic) mode is 300 mV at 3.4 g vibrations load with frequency of 50 Hz. In force detection (static) mode the structures exhibit high sensitivity of 225 mV/g and satisfying linearity of 95.3%. Due to the elastic polymer/polymer interface the structures demonstrate great durability after 6000 cycles of intensive vibrations with maximum degradation of the electrical parameters of 17%.
  Article Metrics


1. Chen J, Oh SK, Zou H, et al. (2018) High-output lead-free flexible piezoelectric generator using single-crystalline GaN thin film. ACS Appl Mater Inter 18: 12839–12846.

2. Walubita LF, Djebou DCS, Faruk ANM, et al. (2018) Prospective of societal and environmental benefits of piezoelectric technology in road energy harvesting. Sustainability 10: 383–396.    

3. Rocha JG, Goncalves LM, Rocha PF, et al. (2010) Energy harvesting from piezoelectric materials fully integrated in footwear. IEEE T Ind Electron 57: 813–819.    

4. Johar AM, Hassan MA, Waseem A, et al. (2018) Stable and high piezoelectric output of GaN nanowire-based lead-free piezoelectric nanogenerator by suppression of internal screening. Nanomaterials 8: 437–449.    

5. Yan J, Jeong YG (2017) Roles of carbon nanotube and BaTiO3 nanofiber in the electrical, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of flexible nanocomposite generators. Compos Sci Technol 144: 1–10.    

6. Jung I, Shin YH, Kim S, et al. (2017) Flexible piezoelectric polymer-based energy harvesting system for roadway applications. Appl Energ 197: 222–229.    

7. Ghafari E, Jiang XD, Lu N (2018) Surface morphology and beta-phase formation of single polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite nanofibers. Adv Compos Hybrid Mater 1: 332–340.    

8. Ghafari E, Lu N (2019) Self-polarized electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiber for sensing applications. Compos Part B-Eng 160: 1–9.    

9. Su YF, Kotian RR, Lu N (2018) Energy harvesting potential of bendable concrete using polymer based piezoelectric generator. Compos Part B-Eng 153: 124–129.    

10. Zhu Z, Lowes J, Berron J, et al. (2014) Spin-coating defect theory and experiments. ECS Trans 60: 293–302.    

11. Xu Y, Luo A, Zhang A, et al. (2016) Spray coating of polymer electret with nano particles for stable surface charge. IEEE 11th Annual International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems (NEMS), 17–20 April 2016, Sendai, Japan.

12. Kolev G, Aleksandrova M, Videkov V, et al. (2012) Piezoelectric MEMS stress sensor with thin lead zirconate titanate (PZT) layer. IEEE 20th Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR), Belgrade, Serbia, 991–993.

13. Aleksandrova M, Kurtev N, Videkov V, et al. (2015) Material alternative to ITO for transparent conductive electrode in flexible display and photovoltaic devices. Microelectron Eng 145: 112–116.    

14. Thirmal C, Nayek C, Murugavel P, et al. (2013) Magnetic, dielectric and magnetodielectric properties of PVDF-La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 polymer nanocomposite film. AIP Adv 3: 112109.

15. Ruan L, Yao X, Chang Y, et al. (2018) Properties and applications of the β phase poly(vinylidene fluoride). Polymers 10: 228–255.    

16. Mandal D, Henkel K, Schmeißer D (2011) Control of the crystalline polymorph, molecular dipole and chain orientations in P(VDF-HFP) for high electrical energy storage application. 2011 International Conference on Nanoscience, Technology and Societal Implications (NSTSI), Bhubaneswar, India.

17. Parker A, Ueda A, Marvinney CE, et al. (2018) Structural and thermal treatment evaluation of electrospun PVDF nanofibers for sensors. J Polym Sci Appl 2: 1–4.

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved