Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Evaluation and Characterization of Biodiesels Obtained Through Ethylic or Methylic Transesterification of Tryacylglicerides in Corn Oil

1 Technical School of Health, Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), Campus Umuarama, 38408-100 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. ;
2 Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Uberlândia, Campus Santa Mônica, 38408-100 Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.;
3 Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM), 39100-000 Diamantina, Minas Gerais, and Department of Chemistry ICEx, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Special Issues: Bio-blended Fuels

This work was devoted to the transesterification of corn oil either with methyl or ethyl alcohol and to the characterization of the biodiesels (composed by FAME—fatty acid methyl esters—or FAEE—fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively) produced. As an initial hypothesis, it was argued whether or not the two alcohols, both with short molecular chains, would impart significant differences to the chemical characteristics of the two biodiesels from corn oil. The most common properties of the biodiesels were evaluated by determining corresponding parameters for acid value, peroxide value, water content, oxidative stability, free and total glycerin, kinematic viscosity at 40 ℃ and density at 20 ℃, for both chemical routes, FAME and FAEE. In general, values were found to be well within the recommended limits for commercial biodiesel, in accordance with the Brazilian, European and American standard recommendations, except only for the oxidative stability. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.08 mg KOH/g; peroxide index, 23.77 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 3.10 h; water content, 297.1 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.092 %; free glycerin, 0.009 %; viscosity, 4.05 mm2/s and density, 878.7 kg/m. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.11 mg/ KOH; peroxide index, 22.39 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 2.13 h; water content, 264.8 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.25 %; free glycerin, 0.02 %; viscosity, 4.37 mm2/s and density, 874.0 kg/m. From a direct inspection of chemical data for the two products prepared via the two chemical routes, it can be drawn that values of the physical and chemical parameters for both, methyl and ethyl biodiesels, are essentially similar, except for the oxidative stability. However, the oxidative stability can be suitably adjusted by adding an anti-oxidizing agent to the ethyl biodiesel medium. The two biodiesels are thus promising alternatives to fully replace or to be admixed to the mineral diesel. Relatively to the pure petrol diesel, the resulting admixture would clearly gain towards preserving the natural environment by reducing the emission of harmful gases that would also direct and significantly affect the human health.
  Article Metrics


1. Oliveira CCF, Suarez PAZ, Santos WLP. (2008) Biodiesel: Possibilidades e Desafios. Quim Nova 28: 3-8. In Portuguese.

2. Anisuddin S, Hashar NA, Tahseen S. (2005) Prevention of oil spill pollution in seawater using locally available materials. Arab J Sc Eng 30: 143-152.

3. ITOPF The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited. London, 2014. Available from: http://www.itopf.com/.

4. Runge, CF, Senauer B. (2007) How biofuels could starve the poor. Foreign Aff 86: 41-46.

5. Sharma YC, Singh B, Upadhyay SN (2008) Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: A review. Fuel 87: 2355-2373.    

6. Benjumea P, Agudelo J, Agudelo A. (2008) Basic properties of palm oil biodiesel-diesel blends. Fuel 87: 2069-2075.    

7. Helwani Z, Othman MR, Aziz N, et al. (2009) Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green catalytic techniques: A review. Fuel Process Technol 90: 1502-1514.    

8. Padula AD, Santos MS, Ferreira L, et al. (2012) The emergence of the biodiesel industry in Brazil: Current figure sand future prospects. Energ Policy 44: 395–405.

9. Lin YC, Tsai CH, Yang CR, et al. (2008) Effects on aerosol size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with feedstock palm-biodiesel blends. Atmos Environ 42: 6679-6688.    

10. Bi Y, Ding D, Wang D. (2010) Low-melting-point biodiesel derived from corn oil via urea complexation. Bioresour Technol 101: 1220-1226.    

11. Quintella CM, Teixeira LSG, Korn MGA, et al. (2009) Cadeia do biodiesel da bancada à indústria: uma visão geral com prospecção de tarefas e oportunidades para P&D&I. Quím Nova 32: 793-808. In Portuguese.

12. Duarte AP, Carvalho CRL, Cavichioli JC. (2008) Densidade, teor de óleo e produtividade de grãos em híbridos de milho. Bragantia 67: 759-767. In Portuguese.    

13. Suarez PAZ, Santos ALF, Rodrigues JP, et al. (2009) Biocombustíveis a partir de óleos e gorduras: desafios tecnológicos para viabilizá-los. Quím Nova 32; 768-775. In Portuguese.

14. ASTM D664 Standard Test Method for Acid Number of Petroleum Products by Potentiometric Titration. West Conshohocken, 2003. Avaiable from: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D664.htm.

15. ANVISA National Agency of Vigilance. Brasília, 2014 Available from: http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/wps/portal/anvisa/home.

16. CSN EN 14112 Determination of Oxidation Stability. The European Standard, 2007. Available from:http://www.en-standard.eu/csn-en-14112-fat-and-oil-derivatives-fatty-acid-methyl-esters-fame-determination-of-oxidation-stability-accelerated-oxidation-test/.

17. Pisarello ML, Costa BD, Mendow G, et al. (2010) Esterification with ethanol to produce biodiesel from high acidity raw materials: Kinetic studies and analysis of secondary reactions. Fuel Process Techn 91: 1005–1014.

18. Lôbo IPF, Ferreira SLC, Cruz, RS. (2009) Biodiesel: Parâmetros de Qualidade e Métodos Analíticos. Quím Nova 32: 1596-1608.

19. Munoz RAA, Fernandes DM, Santos DQ, et al. (2012) Biodiesel: Production, Characterization, Metallic Corrosion and Analytical Methods for Contaminants. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodiesel-feedstocks-production-and-applications/biodiesel-production-characterization-metallic-corrosion-and-novel-analytical-methods-for-contaminan.

20. ANP National Petroleum Agency. Brasilia, 2012. Available from: http://nxt.anp.gov.br/nxt/gateway.dll/leg/resolucoes_anp/2012/maio/ranp%2014%20-%202012.xmL.

21. Fernandes DM, Serqueira DS, Portela FM, et al. (2012) Preparation and characterization of methylic and ethylic biodiesel from cottonseed oil and effect of tert-butylhydroquinone on its oxidative stability. Fuel 97: 658-661.    

22. Velasco J, Andersen ML, Skibsted LH. (2004) Evaluation of oxidative stability of vegetable oils by monitoring the tendency to radical formation. A comparison of electron spin resonance spectroscopy with the Rancimat method and differential scanning calorimetry. Food Chem 85: 623-632.

23. Tan CP, Che YBM, Selamat J, et al. (2002) Comparative studies of oxidative stability of edible oils by differential scanning calorimetry and oxidative stability index methods. Food Chem 76: 385-389.    

24. Dantas MB, Conceição M, Fernandes VJ, et al. (2007) Thermal and kinetic study of corn biodiesel obtained by the methanol and ethanol routes. J Therm Anal Calorim 87: 835-839.    

25. Dantas MB, Almeida AAF, Conceição M, et al. (2007) Characterization and kinetic compensation effect of corn biodiesel. J Therm Anal Calorim 87: 847-851.    

26. Lôbo IP, Ferreira SLC, Cruz RS. (2009) Biodiesel: parâmetros de qualidade e métodos analíticos. Quím Nova 32: 1596-1608.

27. Encinar JM, Sánchez N, Martínez G, et al. (2011) Study of biodiesel production from animal fats with high free fatty acid content. Bioresour Technol 102: 10907-10914.    

28. ABNT NBR 10441 Determination of Kinematic Viscosity and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity. Brasília, 2007. Available from: http://www.abntcatalogo.com.br/norma.aspx?ID=001234.

29. Santos DQ. (2010) Transesterificação de milho e soja, análise quimiométrica do processo e caracterização das propriedades físico-químicas do produto. DSc Thesis at Federal University of Uberlândia, Brazil. 108p.

30. In Portuguese.Lima AL, Santos QD, Lima AP, et al. (2012) Thermal expansion coefficient and algebraic models to correct values of specific mass as a function of temperature for corn biodiesel. Fuel 106: 646-650.

Copyright Info: © 2014, José Domingos Fabris, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved